Hilfe & Kontakt

even the opponents of Israel unconsciously affirm the "impermissible confusion" that Israel is deliberately trying to disseminate. WELL NON JEW BRIGHT ENOUGH TO SEE THROUGH THEM.

Von: PissedOff (po@home.com) [Profil]
Datum: 07.06.2010 13:36
Message-ID: <8R4Pn.1563$Ls1.1284@news-server.bigpond.net.au>
Newsgroup: alt.military.cadetcan.community.military aus.services.defence us.legal alt.military.retired alt.militaryrec.aviation.military alt.militarysci.military.naval
Israel caught STEALING 80% of all charity given!!
> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJy5u4rtN9Q&feature=related

Hmmm! Ten thousand rocket and mortar rounds you say.

That must have caused an appalling loss of life among the Israelis.

They're Arabs,  they can't hit their targets...

And of course always good for a few sent by mossad  into the desert
somewhere making sure it wont hit anything, has huge effect on the media.
Especially as we own it. Our reporters know how to earn their pay and please
the jewish owners.





January 18, 2009
Summary execution in southern West Bank
Hebron / PNN - During the killing of over 1,000 Palestinians in the Gaza
Strip and the demonstrations against them the occupation remains in the West
Bank. This week a family lost their father in Hebron.

Yasser Saqr Ismail Tameizi had his six year old son with him. They were
working on their land in Ithna Village, west of the city.

It was Tuesday morning and the 35 year old farmer's death served as a
violent reminder, commented the Al Haq Human Rights Organization, "that even
as Israel engages in horrific and illegal attacks against the Gaza Strip,
its oppressive occupation policies continue to undermine the lives of
Palestinians in the West Bank."

Tameizi had an Israeli-issued permit to reach his lands that the Wall had
divided him from. Two eyewitnesses were in an adjacent field grazing their
cattle and Tameizi and his six year old were 500 meters east of the Wall
which is incomplete in this area of Hebron. Instead of a 10 meter concrete
wall, it consists of barbed wire fencing that cuts through the village.

On 13 January at 11:00 am four Israeli soldiers entered Tameizi's land
through a gate in the Wall. They told the little boy to leave, which he did,
and one of the soldiers kicked the father. Tameizi made a move to defend
himself and his son and two of the soldiers knocked him to the ground and
tied his hands behind his back. He was held down on his back by two soldiers
sitting on his stomach while the others watched.

At noon an Israeli military jeep with four soldiers entered Tameizi's land.
After 15 minutes the man was thrown, blindfolded and still handcuffed, into
the back of the jeep.

The eyewitnesses report, "The jeep then moved toward the gate, with four
soldiers inside and the other four walking behind it."

At 1:30 an Armored Personnel Carrier, arrived and still on the side of the
Wall facing the Israeli boundaries it left after 10 minutes with the jeep
driving quickly to Tarqumiya Checkpoint.

The Palestinian Red Crescent Society reports that its Hebron branch office
received a phone call at approximately 3:00 pm in which Israeli soldiers
told them to pick up Tameizi who was still in their custody.

He was dead before reaching the hospital.

The 35 year old man had been shot and died of the bullet wound to his
stomach which exited through his lower back. The Red Crescent said it
indicates he was shot at point blank range most likely while sitting down by
someone above him aiming down.

Ramallah's Al Haq referred today to the severe violation of international
law, the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, in addition to tenets of the Geneva Conventions
and United Nations resolutions, as a "summary execution."

Carole - American propaganda

"Lazarus Cain" <rspeaking@aol.com  wrote in message

1       On 5 November the Israeli government sealed all the ways into and
of Gaza. Food, medicine, fuel, parts for water and sanitation
fertiliser, plastic sheeting, phones, paper, glue, shoes and even
teacups are no longer getting through in sufficient quantities or at
all. According to Oxfam only 137 trucks of food were allowed into
in November.

The technique of laying siege in this manner violates UN mandates went
out witht he dark ages, but I suppose it is approved by Bush and
Cheney as "OK torture" so Israel getss the green light,to do this to
the "enemy" . UN mandates only apply if approved by Bush anyway. Got
to do it while they still have some one in the White house they can
count on. All this instigation ought to provoke soemone to "committing
terror" and then getting themselves trounced on by US missiles so as
to defend Israel, and we all can enjoy a nice "prosperous" war
somewhere, further enriching someone while further impoverishing the

Israel's performance is fueling the cause of what Mr Bush calls
According to Mr Bush and his Isreali friends  the Gazans needs to be
punished until they reform, and depriving them of food, water and
medicine is a good way of teacing them to behave or else.
We'll starve their children until they behave...I suppose that is the
It borders on child abuse on the order of a few hundred thousand.
Or is it..the situation is so out of control now..that there is no
solution possible anymore....without a drastic change.
We can expect to see nuclear retaliation in an indirect manner because
of the West's and/or Israel's callous inhumanity to a general civilian
poplulation....pretending to be agents of God,peace and democracy, but
actually wolves in sheeps clothing
Mr G.W.Bush's irresponisbility will be assigned as the cause of any
wars over the next 40 days and nights..
How is it that collateral damage from unjust policies  murdering the
poor is not terrorism , but attacking the wealthy and powerful is?
Hostile death dealing exchanges are  caused by instigated instability.
Man's ego and pride invites disaster to the world.
It seems that neglect has allowed situation to escalate out of
We would wish it would it be true that these visons of what is likely
to ocur are false, and so do  I, but that is wishful thinking, is it
Bush fiddles while the  economy collapses and wars  start.
We all know he loves the  music of the epic song and dance act  he
Visions come true, because there is no proof to sway the skeptics to
avoid predicted disasters....hence visions can actually be signs of
traumatic things to come at times...they are subconscious warnings to
the God-fearing mind.
Without proof, there is no way to convince one to avoid disater,
especially if one does not wish to open the mind to the possibility,
for fear of being proven wrong..
Such people learn and die the hard way.

Just as Mr Bush allowed Israel to destroy Lebanon, he will stand by
approving the death and destruction delivered to Gaza by Israel.
The rest of the world feasts , parties and stands by to ignore the
tragedy as it unfolds
and when the dam breaks they wonder why they could not see it coming.
These acts by Israel breed a lot of hatred of towards the West.

"HHW" <coaster132000@yahoo.com  wrote in message

Zionist Transfer Policy (By Benny Morris)

Another crucial precondition was the penchant among Yishuv leaders to
regard transfer as a legitimate solution to the "Arab problem."
Recently declassified Zionist documents demonstrated the virtual
consensus emerged among the Zionist leadership, the the wake of the
publication in July 1937 of the Peel Commission recommendations, in
favor of the transfer of at least several hundred thousand Palestinian
Arabs--if not all of them-- out of the areas of the Jewish state-to-
be. The tone was set by Ben-Gurion himself in June 1938:

"I support compulsory [Palestinian Arab population] transfer. I do not
see in it anything immoral."

Ben-Gurion's views did not change--though he was aware of the need,
for a tactical reasons, to be discreet. In 1944, at a meeting of the
Jewish Agency Executive discussing how the Zionist movement should
deal with the British Labor Party decision to recommend the transfer
of Palestinian Arabs, he said:

"When I heard these things. . . I had to ponder the matter long and
hard ....[but] I reached the conclusion that this matter [had best]
remain [in the Labor Party Program] . . . Were I asked what should be
our program, it would not occur to me to tell them transfer . . .
because speaking about the matter might harm [us] . . . in world
opinion, because it might give the impression that there is no room in
the Land of Israel without ousting the Arabs [and] . . . it would
alert and antagonize the Arabs . . ."

Ben-Gurion added,

"The transfer of Arabs is easier than the transfer of any other
[people]. There are Arabs states around . . . And it is clear that if
the [Palestinian] Arabs are transferred this would improve their
situation and not the opposite."

None of the members of the Executive opposed or questioned these
views; most spoke in favor. Moshe Sharett, director of the Jewish
Agency's Political Department, declared:

"Transfer could be the crowning achievements, the final stage in the
development of [our] policy, but certainly not the point of departure.
By [speaking publicly and prematurely] we could mobilizing vast forces
against the matter and cause it to fail, in advance."

And he added:

"[W]hen the Jewish state is established--it is very possible that the
result will be transfer of Arabs."

On February 7, 1948, three months into the war, Ben-Gurion told
Mapai's Central Committee that in Jerusalem's Western neighborhoods,
from which the Arabs had fled or been expelled, he had seen:

"no strangers [Palestinian Arabs]. Not since Jerusalem's destruction
in the days of the Romans has it been so Jewish. . . . I do not assume
this will change. . . . And what happened in Jerusalem . . . could
well happen in great parts of the country . . if we hold one, it is
very possible that in coming six to eight or ten months of the war
there will take place great changes. . . . Certainly there will be
great changes in the composition of the population of the country."









Carole - American propaganda

A key piece of Holocaust evidence is the "confession" of former Auschwitz
commandant Rudolf Höss. In a sworn statement, and in testimony before the
Nuremberg Tribunal on April 15, 1946, he declared that between May 1940 and
December 1943, while he was Commandant of the camp complex, "at least two
and a half million victims were executed and exterminated there by gassing
and burning," and that "at least another half million succumbed to
starvation and disease, making a total dead of about three million" during
that period alone. [7] Although it is still widely cited as solid proof for
the Auschwitz extermination story, this "confession" is actually a false
statement that was obtained by torture.

Many years after the war, British military intelligence sergeant Bernard
Clarke described how he and five other British soldiers tortured the former
commandant to obtain his "confession." Höss himself privately explained his
ordeal in these words: "Certainly, I signed a statement that I killed two
and half million Jews. I could just as well have said that it was five
million Jews. There are certain methods by which any confession can be
obtained, whether it is true or not." [8]

Palestinian prisoners
Thursday 04 December 2003, 19:15 Makka Time, 16:15 GMT
A woman holds portraits of her relatives who are in Israeli jails


Israel claims that what she does to the Palestinian authority is a self
defense war against terrorism .
The truth:



The IDF has no mercy for the children in Gaza nursery schools

By Gideon Levy, Haaretz Correspondent

The fighting in Gaza is "war deluxe." Compared with previous wars, it is
child's play - pilots bombing unimpeded as if on practice runs, tank and
artillery soldiers shelling houses and civilians from their armored
vehicles, combat engineering troops destroying entire streets in their
ominous protected vehicles without facing serious opposition.

1) in 18 April 2002 the Jewish '' Gerald Kovman '' lead a massive attack on
the Israeli prime minister confirming that he and his army committed war
crimes in Palestinian lands saying the deeds of Sharon bleach the with blood
and described the Israeli army actions as barbarian . also ''Ann Claude ''
work party - just arriving from Jenin - asked the world leaders to impose
punishment on Israel and prohibit selling weapons to it .Also she told the
members examples of the sad stories she heard in the camp

2) in Feb. 2002 the Israeli journalist David Forman said that '' the
demolition and destruction of Palestinians houses keeps tens of people
homeless in freezing nights , is a process that lack mercy and unrelated to
security or capturing the people who kill Israeli soldiers .

3) the ex work minister '' Norbert bloom '' in a statement for him in June
2002 to Sturn magazine the operations of the Israeli army in Palestine land
does not appear as anti-terrorism activities but operations its purpose the
elimination of people also said that Anti-Semitism is the baton used in
Germany to kill any sounds that clear the picture of human rights violation
Israel commits.

"jgarbuz" <jgarbuz@netzero.com  wrote in message
On Nov 18, 4:43 pm, Peace Power <anamin...@gmail.com  wrote:
On Nov 18, 1:39 pm, "Kurt Knoll" <kno...@citywest.ca  wrote:

You will never see anything like this in a western news paper and
not without the holocaust permission.
Kurt Knoll.

Ain't that the truth!

"Peace Power" <anamin...@gmail.com  wrote in message

The San Diego Tribune
Remembering the Palestinian Nakba

Nearly 30 years since she had seen her Northern Galilee home in what
she called "48 Palestine," Rasmiya Barghouti was finally given a
permit by the Israeli military authorities to visit. She decided to
take two of her daughters and four of her grandchildren with her.

It took less than three hours to reach Safad, renamed Tsvat by Israel
after 1948. The van stopped in front of the white stone home that held
her childhood memories. She proceeded to the familiar metal door,
where she knocked. A large eastern European woman opened the door; the
two argued. Rasmiya returned to the van, her hardened face wet with
tears. Her only words were: "She wouldn't let me in! She still has the
same curtains I made with my mother."

They proceeded in silence, as she wept discretely, to lunch at a hotel
on Lake Tiberias where her youngest grandchild grew hyper. Instead of
imposing her usual military-style discipline on the child, she
encouraged him to splatter water and make even "more noise" - a shock
to the rest of the family.

The Israeli waiter hurriedly came to the table demanding, in Hebrew,
they stop the raucous behavior. It was then that her defiance exploded
into cursing the waiter in Arabic. "We can do whatever we please! This
is my father's hotel!" she yelled. Until that moment, her children and
grandchildren had been sheltered from knowing anything about her dear

The rage of this Palestinian woman was born out of seeing her
childhood home, from which she was forced to leave in 1948, now
occupied by a stranger who would not even allow her in. She'd seen her
father's hotel, which he was never allowed to vacate, taken over by
strangers. For the first time since her violent dispossession in 1948,
she was allowed to visit her homeland, but not to return. Because
millions of other Palestinian refugees are denied even such a visit,
Rasmiya was considered "lucky."

While Israel celebrates 60 years since its establishment,
Palestinians everywhere commemorate the "Nakba"("Catastrophe" in
Arabic) that befell them after armed Jewish militia raided their homes
and expelled them.

The exclusionary Zionist vision of creating a Jewish state in
Palestine meant the elimination of the indigenous, "non-Jewish"
population. In his book, "The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine,"
Israelihistorian Ilan Pappe writes: " . . . on 10 March 1948 . . .

Zionist leaders together with young military Jewish officers, put the
final touches to a plan for the ethnic cleansing of Palestine."

Thus the Palestinians had become the victims of the victims of

Ilan Pappe explains how Jewish militias, the future armed forces of
the state of Israel, carried out a plan of large-scale intimidation
and siege, setting fires to Palestinian homes, planting mines,
destroying more than 500 villages, and exercising other terrorist
activities. In the end, nearly 800,000 Palestinians were forced out of
their homes and into refugee camps in Gaza, the West Bank, Jordan,
Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and elsewhere.

Rasmiya's family was among this wave of refugees. This massive ethnic
cleansing completed the first phase of the compulsory "transfer" that
the founder of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, advocated in his address to
the Jewish Agency Executive as early as 1938. Thus the Palestinians
had become the victims of the victims of Europe.

Ten years ago, the late Edward Said commented on the "Israel at 50"
celebrations: "I still find myself astonished at the lengths to which
official Israel and its supporters will go to suppress the fact that a
half century has gone by without Israeli restitution, recognition or
acknowledgment of Palestinian human rights . . . the Palestinian Nakba
is characterized as a semi-fictional event . . . caused by no one in

The same stubborn refusal to recognize the Palestinian Nakba
characterizes the "Israel at 60" celebrations in the U.S. media today.
For Palestinians, denial of the Nakba is tantamount to denying the
Holocaust for Jews.

Remembering the Nakba is even more compelling given what former
President Jimmy Carter describes as an apartheid-like system that
Israel has built to entangle the Palestinians in a seemingly endless
cycle of hopelessness and violence. Israel still denies millions of
Palestinian refugees their U.N.-sanctioned right to go back to their
homes simply because they are not Jewish. Israel continues its 41-year-
old military occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan
Heights. Israel continues to impose its savage blockade on the Gaza
strip. Israel continues to build its illegal wall and settlements on
occupied Palestinian land. And Israel continues to treat its own "non-
Jewish" population as second-class citizens.

Can any conscientious person, then, celebrate Israel at 60?

When Israel has made reparations for its shameful past; when it has
conformed to international law and universal human rights; when it has
ended its brutal oppression of the indigenous people of Palestine; and
when it has allowed Palestinians to practice their right to self-
determination on their own land, we can all celebrate. Then, even
Rasmiya's descendants may celebrate.


I tried to register at the above website, but I could find no place
where to do so, and I couldn't log in if I hadn't registered. Can
someone tell me where to register for this raghead website?

Here, oh stupid one.


I look forward to seeing your diatribes.










Casualties in WW2
Not including the documented  5 million non Jewish  in concentration camps
who far out numbered the suspected true number  (700,000 ODD) of Jewish
victims. And this is without lies and exaggerations about non jewish
cassualities. And freedom for any historian or amateur history buff to
examine and point out flaws without fear of castigation or jail terms.

And no one is going around asking for special favors and sympathy because of
these immense casualities. And certainly don't look like getting anything
from jewish interests who by lies have swollen their numbers to higher than


Soviet Union 25,568,000
China 11,324,000
Germany 7,060,000
Poland 6,850,000
Japan 1,806,000
Yugoslavia 1,700,000
Rumania 985,000
France 810,000
Austria 525,000
Italy 410,000
Great Britain 388,000
USA 295,000
Holland 250,000
Belgium 85,000
Finland 79,000
Canada 42,000
India 36,000
Australia 29,000
Albania 28,000
Spain 22,000
Bulgaria 21,000
New Zealand 12,000
Norway 10,000
South Africa 9,000
Luxembourg 5,000
Denmark 4,000

Fees for evac.


Right-Wing Attacks American Evacuees: 'Ingrates,' 'Whining,' 'Spoiled-Rotten
Little Children'  Not that the right wing is heavily populated by
Israel's original sin


"At a daily rate of $8.10, hospitalized troops, including those wounded in
Iraq and Afghanistan, are being charged for their meals


UN urges Israel halt 'violations'


GENEVA - A UN human rights expert on Wednesday criticized the United States,
European Union, Russia and the United Nations for ignoring countless Israeli
violations of human rights, international law and other standards.


Apparently they should be as happy as they are that their fellow israelis
are bombing them. The chickenhawks now showing their brave side.


The Bush administration's evacuation of Americans in Lebanon has been
disorganized and lagged behind the efforts of other countries. As of
yesterday, only a few thousand had been able to evacuate, and they departed
"two days after the first Europeans left on ships." Denmark, for example,
"evacuated more than 4,000 of its citizens" by Thursday.

Conservatives have reacted to this incompetence by attacking the evacuees:









"At a daily rate of $8.10, hospitalized troops, including those wounded in
Iraq and Afghanistan, are being charged for their meals


UN urges Israel halt 'violations'


GENEVA - A UN human rights expert on Wednesday criticized the United States,
European Union, Russia and the United Nations for ignoring countless Israeli
violations of human rights, international law and other standards.



BEIRUT, Lebanon - An Israeli bomb destroyed a U.N. observer post on the
border in southern Lebanon Tuesday, killing three observers and leaving
another feared dead,


Resolution 181

Israel caught STEALING 80% of all charity given!!
> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJy5u4rtN9Q&feature=related

Hmmm! Ten thousand rocket and mortar rounds you say.

That must have caused an appalling loss of life among the Israelis.

They're Arabs,  they can't hit their targets...

And of course always good for a few sent by mossad  into the desert
somewhere making sure it wont hit anything, has huge effect on the media.
Especially as we own it. Our reporters know how to grovel earn their pay and
please the jewish owners.


"Surfer" <no@spam.net  wrote in message
Article 51: Israel's false claim
Reza Nasri
17 - 02 - 2009

Both opponents and supporters of Israel's attacks on Gaza fail to see
how deep its breach of international law and norms really runs

Israel claims that its recent attacks on Gaza are justified under
international law. In doing so, it invokes Article 51 of the UN
which clearly recognizes the right to self-defence as an "inherent"
right of States. In a statement made before the Security Council
at the outset of the latest hostilities, Israel's Ambassador to the
United Nations, Gabriela Shalev, clearly invoked Article 51 by
claiming that:

"In its military operation, Israel exercised its inherent right to
self-defence, enshrined in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.
Any other State would have acted in the same manner faced with similar
terrorist threats."

Later on, the Permanent mission of Israel reiterates this position in
a letter addressed to the Secretary General.
Once again, Israel officially claims that:

"In response to Hamas' continuous terrorist attacks, Israel has been
acting in accordance with its inherent right to self-defence enshrined
in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations."

To counter Israel's assertion, opponents argue that the right to
self-defence - while being an inherent right of States - is subject to
the customary rules of proportionality and necessity. They note that
Israel's massive military operations in Gaza do not meet these two
conditions (the military operations are excessively violent compared
to the alleged attacks that provoked them) and conclude that they are
therefore illegal under international law.

In my opinion, both sides miss a crucial point.

Non-applicability of Article 51 in occupied territories

The right to self-defence - as recognized by Article 51 of the Charter
- is a right attributable to "States" only in their "international"
relations. A State is allowed to recourse to self-defence if it is
subject to another State's unlawful use of force. The situation must

a) An armed attack (of sufficient gravity);

b) Conducted between States (or from one State territory) - as main
subjects of international law;

c) And be of an international character.

Article 51 does not apply to a situation that involves an Occupying
Power (the State of Israel) acting within occupied territories under
its own authority and responsibility. In legal terms, Israel cannot
invoke the right to self-defence under Article 51 to justify the use
of military force in territories on which Israel itself exercises
effective control, at least since 1967. (Although Israel withdrew its
troops from Gaza under the "disengagement plan" in 2005, Israel's
relocation of its troops from the occupied land does not end its
status as the "Occupying power". Israel continuously maintained
control over Gaza's borders, air and sea space, water, electricity,
sewage and telecommunication systems and because of that, Gaza remains
an occupied territory as defined in international law. In fact, UN
Security Council resolution 1860 issued on January 8, 2009 clearly
notes that: "the Gaza Strip constitutes an integral part of the
territory occupied in 1967".)

Indeed, it would be inconceivable for most of us to imagine any other
country barricading a city or a district within a territory under its
own watch, then use F-16 fire jets, high-tech Cobra helicopters,
ground troops, cluster bombs, white phosphorus and depleted uranium
ammunition, killing thousands of its inhabitants under the pretext of
combating, for instance, street gang criminality. It would be even
more absurd if that country justified all that by invoking an
extraneous right under the UN Charter. Yet, this is exactly what
Israel has done in Gaza.

Palestine (Gaza strip and the West Bank) is not yet considered an
independent sovereign State - especially not by Israel. The swath of
land known as "Palestine" (which encompasses Gaza) is an inhabited
territory under Israeli mandate and occupation since 1967. For Israel
to become entitled to invoke Article 51 of the UN Charter (which is a
multilateral inter-state treaty) and benefit from its relevant rules
of self-defence, Israel needs at least to recognize that it is dealing
with another "State" (be it a State that directly commits armed
attacks against Israel or a State whose territory is being used by an
autonomous hostile group to mount attacks against Israel). But Israel
cannot persistently rebuff Palestine's Statehood on one hand, and, on
the other hand, treat Palestine as a State whenever it needs to
utilise the Charter to legitimise its use of force against.

In other words, Israel's self-defence argument entails the
precondition of recognising Palestinian Statehood; while not doing so
entails setting the Charter's legal subterfuges aside and solely
complying with the strictures of Humanitarian law (especially the
Geneva Conventions) regarding occupation.

The world court's position

In its July 2004 advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the
Construction of a Wall, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) had
already established the non-applicability of "self-defence" under
Article 51 in the situation between Israel and the Occupied
Territories (a key point that most commentators seem to have
forgotten). Just as it claims today, Israel had argued in the Wall
case that the construction of a wall around the West Bank was an act
of self-defence consistent with Article 51 of the Charter. According
to Israel, Article 51 supported its right to build the wall to protect
itself against terrorist attacks emanating from the occupied

But the Court dismissed this argument as follows:

"Article 51 of the Charter thus recognizes the existence of an
inherent right of self-defence in the case of armed attack by one
State against another State. However, Israel does not claim that the
attacks against it are imputable to a foreign State. The Court also
notes that Israel exercises control in the Occupied Palestinian
Territory and that, as Israel itself states, the threat which it
regards as justifying the construction of the wall originates within,
and not outside, that territory. [...] Consequently, the Court
concludes that Article 51 of the Charter has no relevance in this
case" (emphasis added by author).

A fortiori, the Court's position is also valid regarding the recent
situation in Gaza.

In fact, there seems to be a growing consensus among prominent
international law experts regarding the issue. In a document entitled
"The Chatham House Principles of International Law on the Use of Force
in Self-Defence", the Royal Institute of International Affairs also
confirmed the non-applicability of Article 51 by stressing that
"unless an attack is directed from outside territory under the control
of the defending State, the question of self-defence in the sense of
Article 51 does not normally arise".

The impermissible confusion: Jus ad bellum vs Jus in bello

The law of the use of force is composed of two distinct branches:

a) the law governing the recourse to force (jus ad bellum) and;

b) the law governing the conduct of hostilities (jus in bello).

The first set of laws refers to the reasons States may invoke to
justify war, while the second set governs the means they may adopt in
executing war or the way they should act in a post-war situation, such
as occupation. The jus ad bellum rules are mostly enshrined in the UN
Charter (i.e. article 2(4) and article 51), while the jus in bello
rules are mostly to be found in the four Geneva Conventions, the Hague
regulations and relevant customary norms. Self-defence logically
belongs to the realm of jus ad bellum while "occupation" is naturally
governed by the jus in bello.

As Georges Abi-Saab - Professor Emeritus at the Graduate Institute of
International Studies in Geneva - explained in his oral pleading
before the ICJ in the wall case:

"[S]elf-defence does not belong to international humanitarian law or
the jus in bello, but to the jus ad bellum [the branch of law that
defines the legitimate reasons a State may engage in war]. Israel
makes here an impermissible confusion between the two branches of the
law of war that have to be kept radically apart".

As it did in the wall case, Israel still attempts to sustain that
confusion, for good reason.

Israel has already exhausted its right to self-defence when it
pre-emptively seized the West Bank and Gaza from neighbouring
belligerent States in an international conflict in 1967. Since then,
the only set of laws that govern the Israeli-Palestinian situation is
the customary and treaty-based norms of "Humanitarian law" that
regulate occupation (Jus in bello). According to the applicable law,
Israel is not only proscribed from harming the inhabitants of these
territories, but it is obliged to ensure their safety and security
(Article 43 of The Hague regulations). Israel is also under the
obligation to provide protection to their private properties (Arts. 46
and 47 of the Fourth Geneva convention), and to keep intact their
"public buildings, real estate, forests and agricultural estates"
(Art. 55 of the Fourth Geneva convention).

Israel's recent massive bombardments and use of heavy artillery
against Gaza cannot be reconciled with these obligations. In fact,
Israel's recent actions constitute, under Article 147 of the Fourth
Convention, as well as Article 85 of Protocol I and Article 8 of the
Rome Statute, grave breaches of international law which entail
individual criminal responsibility.

By constantly alluding to the notion of self-defence as per Article 51
and by framing the military operations in Gaza solely in terms of
necessity and proportionality, even the opponents of Israel
unconsciously affirm the "impermissible confusion" that Israel is
deliberately trying to disseminate.
Reza Nasri is an international lawyer based at the Graduate Institute
of International and Development Studies in Geneva.


A list of UN Resolutions against "Israel" Here is a list of UN resolutions
that Israel has not complied with, far more than Iraq. Note that she has
also illegally developed nuclear weapons. Further, the situation is far
worse than would at first appear, it involves the serious distortion of the
official Security Council record by the profligate use by the United States
of its veto power. (See Table) Israel's, defiance goes back to its very
beginnings. This collection of resolutions criticizing Israel is unmatched
by the record of any other nation as Israel stands in violation of more UN
resolutions than ANY OTHER NATION ON EARTH.

A list of UN Resolutions against "Israel" 1955-1992: *
Resolution 106: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for Gaza raid". *
Resolution 111: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for raid on Syria that killed
fifty-six people". * Resolution 127: " . . . 'recommends' Israel suspends
it's 'no-man's zone' in Jerusalem". *
Resolution 162: " . . . 'urges' Israel to comply with UN decisions". *
Resolution 171: " . . . determines flagrant violations' by Israel in its
attack on Syria". Resolution 228: " . . . 'censures' Israel for its attack
on Samu in the West Bank, then under Jordanian control". *
Resolution 237: " . . . 'urges' Israel to allow return of new 1967
Palestinian refugees". Resolution 248: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for its
massive attack on Karameh in Jordan". *
Resolution 250: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to refrain from holding military
parade in Jerusalem". *
Resolution 251: " . . . 'deeply deplores' Israeli military parade in
Jerusalem in defiance of Resolution 250". *
Resolution 252: " . . . 'declares invalid' Israel's acts to unify Jerusalem
as Jewish capital". *
Resolution 256: " . . . 'condemns' Israeli raids on Jordan as 'flagrant
violation". * Resolution 259: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's refusal to accept
UN mission to probe occupation". *
Resolution 262: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for attack on Beirut airport". *
Resolution 265: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for air attacks for Salt in
Jordan". * Resolution 267: " . . . 'censures' Israel for administrative acts
to change the status of Jerusalem". *
Resolution 270: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for air attacks on villages in
southern Lebanon". *
Resolution 271: " . . . 'condemns' Israel's failure to obey UN resolutions
on Jerusalem". *
Resolution 279: " . . . 'demands' withdrawal of Israeli forces from
Lebanon". * Resolution 280: " . . . 'condemns' Israeli's attacks against
Lebanon". *
Resolution 285: " . . . 'demands' immediate Israeli withdrawal form
Lebanon". * Resolution 298: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's changing of the
status of Jerusalem". * Resolution 313: " . . . 'demands' that Israel stop
attacks against Lebanon". * Resolution 316: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for
repeated attacks on Lebanon". * Resolution 317: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's
refusal to release Arabs abducted in Lebanon". *
Resolution 332: " . . . 'condemns' Israel's repeated attacks against
Lebanon". * Resolution 337: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for violating
Lebanon's sovereignty". * Resolution 347: " . . . 'condemns' Israeli attacks
on Lebanon". *
Resolution 425: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to withdraw its forces from
Lebanon". * Resolution 427: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to complete its
withdrawal from Lebanon. * Resolution 444: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's lack
of cooperation with UN peacekeeping forces". *
Resolution 446: " . . . 'determines' that Israeli settlements are a 'serious
obstruction' to peace and calls on Israel to abide by the Fourth Geneva
Convention". *
Resolution 450: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to stop attacking Lebanon". *
Resolution 452: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to cease building settlements in
occupied territories". *
Resolution 465: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's settlements and asks all member
states not to assist Israel's settlements program". *
Resolution 467: " . . . 'strongly deplores' Israel's military intervention
in Lebanon". * Resolution 468: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to rescind illegal
expulsions of two Palestinian mayors and a judge and to facilitate their
return". *
Resolution 469: " . . . 'strongly deplores' Israel's failure to observe the
council's order not to deport Palestinians". *
Resolution 471: " . . . 'expresses deep concern' at Israel's failure to
abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention". *
Resolution 476: " . . . 'reiterates' that Israel's claim to Jerusalem are
'null and void'". * Resolution 478: " . . . 'censures (Israel) in the
strongest terms' for its claim to Jerusalem in its 'Basic Law'". *
Resolution 484: " . . . 'declares it imperative' that Israel re- admit two
deported Palestinian mayors". *
Resolution 487: " . . . 'strongly condemns' Israel for its attack on Iraq's
nuclear facility". *
Resolution 497: " . . . 'decides' that Israel's annexation of Syria's Golan
Heights is 'null and void' and demands that Israel rescinds its decision
forthwith". *
Resolution 498: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to withdraw from Lebanon". *
Resolution 501: " . . . 'calls' on Israel to stop attacks against Lebanon
and withdraw its troops". *
Resolution 509: " . . . 'demands' that Israel withdraw its forces forthwith
and unconditionally from Lebanon". *
Resolution 515: " . . . 'demands' that Israel lift its siege of Beirut and
allow food supplies to be brought in". *
Resolution 517: " . . . 'censures' Israel for failing to obey UN resolutions
and demands that Israel withdraw its forces from Lebanon". *
Resolution 518: " . . . 'demands' that Israel cooperate fully with UN forces
in Lebanon". *
Resolution 520: " . . . 'condemns' Israel's attack into West Beirut". *
Resolution 573: " . . . 'condemns' Israel 'vigorously' for bombing Tunisia
in attack on PLO headquarters. *
Resolution 587: " . . . 'takes note' of previous calls on Israel to withdraw
its forces from Lebanon and urges all parties to withdraw". *
Resolution 592: " . . . 'strongly deplores' the killing of Palestinian
students at Bir Zeit University by Israeli troops". *
Resolution 605: " . . . 'strongly deplores' Israel's policies and practices
denying the human rights of Palestinians. *
Resolution 607: " . . . 'calls' on Israel not to deport Palestinians and
strongly requests it to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention. *
Resolution 608: " . . . 'deeply regrets' that Israel has defied the United
Nations and deported Palestinian civilians". *
Resolution 636: " . . . 'deeply regrets' Israeli deportation of Palestinian
civilians. * Resolution 641: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's continuing
deportation of Palestinians. * Resolution 672: " . . . 'condemns' Israel for
violence against Palestinians at the Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount. *
Resolution 673: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's refusal to cooperate with the
United Nations. Resolution 681: " . . . 'deplores' Israel's resumption of
the deportation of Palestinians. * Resolution 694: " . . . 'deplores'
Israel's deportation of Palestinians and calls on it to ensure their safe
and immediate return. *
Resolution 726: " . . . 'strongly condemns' Israel's deportation of
Palestinians. * Resolution 799: ". . . 'strongly condemns' Israel's
deportation of 413 Palestinians and calls for there immediate return.

1993 to 1995UNGA Res 50/21 - The Middle East Peace Process (Dec 12, 1995)
UNGA Res 50/22 - The Situation in the Middle East (Dec 12,

1995) UNGA Res 49/35 - Assistance to Palestinian Refugees (Jan 30 1995)
lUNGA Res 49/36 - Human Rights of Palestinian Refugees (Jan 30 1995) UNGA
Res 49/62 - Question of Palestine (Feb 3 1995) UNGA Res 49/78 - Nuclear
Proliferation in Mideast (Jan 11 1995) UNGA Res 49/87 - Situation in the
Middle East (Feb 7 1995) UNGA Res 49/88 - The Middle East Peace Process (Feb
7 1995) UNGA Res 49/149- Palestinian Right- Self-Determination (Feb 7 1995)
UNGA Res 48/213 - Assistance to Palestinian Refugees (Mar 15, 1994) UNGA Res
48/40 - UNRWA for Palestinian Refugees (Dec 13, 1993) UNGA Res 48/41 - Human
Rights in the Territories (Dec 10 1993) UNGA Res 48/58 - The Middle East
Peace Process (Dec 14 1993) UNGA Res 48/59 - The Situation in the Middle
East (Dec 14 1993) UNGA Res 48/71 - Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Mideast (Dec
16 1993) UNGA Res 48/78 - Israeli Nuclear Armament (Dec 16 1993) UNGA Res
48/94 - Self-Determination & Independence (Dec 20 1993) UNGA Res 48/124-
Non-interference in Elections (Dec 20 1993) UNGA Res 48/158- Question of
Palestine (Dec 20 1993) UNGA Res 48/212- Repercussions of Israeli
Settlements (Dec 21 1993) ==========+++==========

U.S. Vetoes of UN Resolutions Critical of Israel (1972-2002)
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Vetoes: 1972-1982 Subject Date & Meeting US Rep Casting Veto Vote Palestine:
Syrian-Lebanese Complaint. 3 power draft resolution 2/10784 9/10/1972 Bush
13-1, 1 Palestine: Examination of Middle East Situation. 8-power draft
resolution (S/10974) 7/2/1973 Scali 13-1, 0 (China not partic.) Palestine:
Egyptian-Lebanese Complaint. 5-power draft power resolution (S/11898)
12/8/1975 Moynihan 13-1, 1 Palestine: Middle East Problem, including
Palestinian question. 6- power draft resolution (S/11940) 1/26/1976 Moynihan
9-1,3 (China & Libya not partic.) Palestine: Situation in Occupied Arab
Territories. 5-power draft resolution (S/12022) 3/25/1976 Scranton 14-1,0
Palestine: Report on Committee on Rights of Palestinian People. 4- power
draft resolution (S/121119) 6/29/1976 Sherer 10-1,4 Palestine: Palestinian
Rights. Tunisian draft resolution. (S/13911) 4/30/1980 McHenry 10-1,4
Palestine: Golan Heights. Jordan draft resolution. (S/14832/Rev. 2)
1/20/1982 Kirkpatrick 9-1,5 Palestine: Situation in Occupied Territories,
Jordan draft resolution (S/14943) 4/2/1982 Lichenstein 13-1,1 Palestine:
Incident at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. 4-power draft resolution
4/20/1982 Kirpatrick 14-1, 0 Palestine: Conflict in Lebanon. Spain draft
resolution. (S/15185) 6/8/1982 Kirpatrick 14-1,0 Palestine: Conflict in
Lebanon. France draft resolution. (S/15255/Rev. 2) 6/26/1982 Lichenstein
14-1 Palestine: Conflict in Lebanon. USSR draft resolution. (S/15347/Rev. 1,
as orally amended) 8/6/1982 Lichenstein 11-1,3 Palestine: Situation in
Occupied Territories, 20-power draft resolution (S/15895) 8/2/1983
Lichenstein 13-1,1 Security Council Vetoes/Negative voting 1983-present
Subject Date Vote Occupied Arab Territories: Wholesale condemnation of
Israeli settlement policies - not adopted 1983 S. Lebanon: Condemns Israeli
action in southern Lebanon. S/16732 9/6/1984 Vetoed: 13-1 (U.S.), with 1
abstention (UK) Occupied Territories: Deplores "repressive measures" by
Israel against Arab population. S/19459. 9/13/1985 Vetoed: 10-1 (U.S.), with
4 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, UK, France) Lebanon: Condemns Israeli
practices against civilians in southern Lebanon. S/17000. 3/12/1985 Vetoed:
11-1 (U.S.), with 3 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, UK) Occupied
Territories: Calls upon Israel to respect Muslim holy places. S/17769/Rev. 1
1/30/1986 Vetoed: 13-1 (US), with one abstention (Thailand) Lebanon:
Condemns Israeli practices against civilians in southern Lebanon.
S/17730/Rev. 2. 1/17/1986 Vetoed: 11-1 (U.S.), with 3 abstentions
(Australia, Denmark, UK) Libya/Israel: Condemns Israeli interception of
Libyan plane. S/17796/Rev. 1. 2/6/1986 Vetoed: 10 -1 (US), with 4
abstentions (Australia, Denmark, France, UK) Lebanon: Draft strongly
deplored repeated Israeli attacks against Lebanese territory and other
measures and practices against the civilian population; (S/19434) 1/18/1988
vetoed 13-1 (US), with 1 abstention (UK) Lebanon: Draft condemned recent
invasion by Israeli forces of Southern Lebanon and Draft condemned recent
invasion by Israeli forces of Southern Lebanon and repeated a call for the
immediate withdrawal of all Israeli forces from Lebanese territory;
(S/19868) 5/10/1988 vetoed 14-1 (US) Lebanon: Draft strongly deplored the
recent Israeli attack against Lebanese territory on 9 December 1988;
(S/20322) 12/14/1988 vetoed 14-1 (US) Occupied territories: Draft called on
Israel to accept de jure applicability of the 4th Geneva Convention;
(S/19466) 1988 vetoed 14-1 (US) Occupied territories: Draft urged Israel to
abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention, rescind the order to deport
Palestinian civilians, and condemned policies and practices of Israel that
violate the human rights of the Palestinian people in the occupied
territories; (S/19780) 1988 vetoed 14-1 (US) Occupied territories: Strongly
deplored Israeli policies and practices in the occupied territories, and
strongly deplored also Israel's continued disregard of relevant Security
Council decisions. 2/17/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US) Occupied territories:
Condemned Israeli policies and practices in the occupied territories.
6/9/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US) Occupied territories: Deplored Israel's policies
and practices in the occupied territories. 11/7/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: NAM draft resolution to create a commission and send
three security council members to Rishon Lezion, where an Israeli gunmen
shot down seven Palestinian workers. 5/31/1990 Vetoed 14-1 (US) Middle East:
Confirms that the expropriation of land by Israel in East Jerusalem is
invalid and in violation of relevant Security Council resolutions and
provisions of the Fourth Geneva convention; expresses support of peace
process, including the Declaration of Principles of 9/13/1993 5/17/1995
Vetoed 14-1 (US) Middle East: Calls upon Israeli authorities to refrain from
all actions or measures, including settlement activities. 3/7/1997 Vetoed
14-1 (US) Middle East: Demands that Israel cease construction of the
settlement in east Jerusalem (called Jabal Abu Ghneim by the Palestinians
and Har Homa by Israel), as well as all the other Israeli settlement
activity in the occupied territories 3/21/1997 Vetoed 13-1,1 (US) Call for
UN Observers Force in West Bank, Gaza 3/27/2001 Vetoed 9-1 (US), with four
abstentions (Britain, France, Ireland and Norway) Condemned acts of terror,
demanded an end to violence and the establishment of a monitoring mechanism
to bring in observers. 12/15/2001 Vetoed 12-1 (US) with two abstentions
(Britain and Norway) Source: U.S. State Department


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Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time
of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
Full text [Display Introduction] [Display articles] [Display
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at
the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12,
1949, for the purpose of establishing a Convention for the Protection
of Civilian Persons in Time of War, have agreed as follows:

Part I. General Provisions

Article 1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to
ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Art. 2. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in
peace-time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of
declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between
two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war
is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total
occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the
said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the
present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain
bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound
by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts
and applies the provisions thereof.

Art. 3. In the case of armed conflict not of an international
character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting
Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a
minimum, the following

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including
members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed
hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause,
shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse
distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or
wealth, or any other similar criteria.

To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any
time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned
(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds,
mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
(b) taking of hostages;
(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and
degrading treatment;
(d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions
without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court,
affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as
indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of
the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into
force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other
provisions of the present Convention.

The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal
status of the Parties to the conflict.

Art. 4. Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a given
moment and in any manner whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a
conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the conflict or
Occupying Power of which they are not nationals.

Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not
protected by it. Nationals of a neutral State who find themselves in
the territory of a belligerent State, and nationals of a co-
belligerent State, shall not be regarded as protected persons while
the State of which they are nationals has normal diplomatic
representation in the State in whose hands they are.

The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application, as
defined in Article 13.

Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the
Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12
August 1949, or by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the
Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at
Sea of 12 August 1949, or by the Geneva Convention relative to the
Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949, shall not be
considered as protected persons within the meaning of the present

Art. 5 Where in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter
is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely
suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the
State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim such
rights and privileges under the present Convention as would, if
exercised in the favour of such individual person, be prejudicial to
the security of such State.

Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained
as a spy or saboteur, or as a person under definite suspicion of
activity hostile to the security of the Occupying Power, such person
shall, in those cases where absolute military security so requires, be
regarded as having forfeited rights of communication under the present

In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity
and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and
regular trial prescribed by the present Convention. They shall also be
granted the full rights and privileges of a protected person under the
present Convention at the earliest date consistent with the security
of the State or Occupying Power, as the case may be.

Art. 6. The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any
conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2.

In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the
present Convention shall cease on the general close of military

In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present
Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military
operations; however, the Occupying Power shall be bound, for the
duration of the occupation, to the extent that such Power exercises
the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of
the following Articles of the present Convention: 1 to 12, 27, 29 to
34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.

Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may
take place after such dates shall meanwhile continue to benefit by the
present Convention.

Art. 7. In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in
Articles 11, 14, 15, 17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133 and 149, the High
Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all
matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate
provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation
of protected persons, as defined by the present Convention, not
restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such
agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except
where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the
aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable
measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the
Parties to the conflict.

Art. 8. Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or
in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and
by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if
such there be.

Art. 9. The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation
and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to
safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this
purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their
diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own
nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates
shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to
carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent
possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the
Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in
any case exceed their mission under the present Convention.

They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities
of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.

Art. 10. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no
obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International
Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian
organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the
conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of civilian persons
and for their relief.

Art. 11. The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust
to an international organization which offers all guarantees of
impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting
Powers by virtue of the present Convention.

When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit or
cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a
Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first
paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or
such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the
present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to
a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power
shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this
Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization,
such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the
humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the
present Convention.

Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned
or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a
sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which
persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be
required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to
undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special
agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even
temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its
allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the
whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is

Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting
Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense
of the present Article.

The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted to cases of
nationals of a neutral State who are in occupied territory or who find
themselves in the territory of a belligerent State in which the State
of which they are nationals has not normal diplomatic representation.

Art. 12. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of
protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the
Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the
provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend
their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the
invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the
Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in
particular of the authorities responsible for protected persons,
possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the
conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them
for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for
approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a
neutral Power, or delegated by the International Committee of the Red
Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

Part II. General Protection of Populations Against Certain
Consequences of War

Art. 13. The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the populations
of the countries in conflict, without any adverse distinction based,
in particular, on race, nationality, religion or political opinion,
and are intended to alleviate the sufferings caused by war.

Art. 14. In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the
outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their
own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital and
safety zones and localities so organized as to protect from the
effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under
fifteen, expectant mothers and mothers of children under seven.

Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties
concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the zones
and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement
the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present
Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.

The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross
are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the
institution and recognition of these hospital and safety zones and

Art. 15. Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through a
neutral State or some humanitarian organization, propose to the
adverse Party to establish, in the regions where fighting is taking
place, neutralized zones intended to shelter from the effects of war
the following persons, without

(a) wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants;
(b) civilian persons who take no part in hostilities, and who, while
they reside in the zones, perform no work of a military character.

When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position,
administration, food supply and supervision of the proposed
neutralized zone, a written agreement shall be concluded and signed by
the representatives of the Parties to the conflict. The agreement
shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the

Art. 16. The wounded and sick, as well as the infirm, and expectant
mothers, shall be the object of particular protection and respect.

As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the conflict
shall facilitate the steps taken to search for the killed and wounded,
to assist the shipwrecked and other persons exposed to grave danger,
and to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment.

Art. 17. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local
agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of
wounded, sick, infirm, and aged persons, children and maternity cases,
and for the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel
and medical equipment on their way to such areas.

Art. 18. Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and
sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the
object of attack but shall at all times be respected and protected by
the Parties to the conflict.

States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all civilian
hospitals with certificates showing that they are civilian hospitals
and that the buildings which they occupy are not used for any purpose
which would deprive these hospitals of protection in accordance with
Article 19.

Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem provided for
in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the
Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12
August 1949, but only if so authorized by the State.

The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as military
considerations permit, take the necessary steps to make the
distinctive emblems indicating civilian hospitals clearly visible to
the enemy land, air and naval forces in order to obviate the
possibility of any hostile action.

In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be exposed by being
close to military objectives, it is recommended that such hospitals be
situated as far as possible from such objectives.

Art. 19. The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall
not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian
duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only
after due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate cases, a
reasonable time limit and after such warning has remained unheeded.

The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed forces are nursed
in these hospitals, or the presence of small arms and ammunition taken
from such combatants and not yet been handed to the proper service,
shall not be considered to be acts harmful to the enemy.

Art. 20. Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and
administration of civilian hospitals, including the personnel engaged
in the search for, removal and transporting of and caring for wounded
and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases shall be respected
and protected.

In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the above
personnel shall be recognizable by means of an identity card
certifying their status, bearing the photograph of the holder and
embossed with the stamp of the responsible authority, and also by
means of a stamped, water-resistant armlet which they shall wear on
the left arm while carrying out their duties. This armlet shall be
issued by the State and shall bear the emblem provided for in Article
38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of
the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administration of
civilian hospitals shall be entitled to respect and protection and to
wear the armlet, as provided in and under the conditions prescribed in
this Article, while they are employed on such duties. The identity
card shall state the duties on which they are employed.

The management of each hospital shall at all times hold at the
disposal of the competent national or occupying authorities an up-to-
date list of such personnel.

Art. 21. Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially
provided vessels on sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the
infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected in the
same manner as the hospitals provided for in Article 18, and shall be
marked, with the consent of the State, by the display of the
distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention
for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed
Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Art.22. Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and
sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases or for the transport of
medical personnel and equipment, shall not be attacked, but shall be
respected while flying at heights, times and on routes specifically
agreed upon between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.

They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for in Article
38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of
the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949.

Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy occupied
territory are prohibited.

Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a
landing thus imposed, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its
flight after examination, if any.

Art. 23. Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of
all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary
for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High
Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall
likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential
foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen,
expectant mothers and maternity cases.

The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the free passage
of the consignments indicated in the preceding paragraph is subject to
the condition that this Party is satisfied that there are no serious
for fearing:

(a) that the consignments may be diverted from their destination,
(b) that the control may not be effective, or
(c) that a definite advantage may accrue to the military efforts or
economy of the enemy through the substitution of the above-mentioned
consignments for goods which would otherwise be provided or produced
by the enemy or through the release of such material, services or
facilities as would otherwise be required for the production of such

The Power which allows the passage of the consignments indicated in
the first paragraph of this Article may make such permission
conditional on the distribution to the persons benefited thereby being
made under the local supervision of the Protecting Powers.

Such consignments shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible, and the
Power which permits their free passage shall have the right to
prescribe the technical arrangements under which such passage is

Art.24. The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures
to ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are
separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to
their own resources, and that their maintenance, the exercise of their
religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances.
Their education shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of
a similar cultural tradition.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such
children in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with
the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards
for the observance of the principles stated in the first paragraph.

They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under
twelve to be identified by the wearing of identity discs, or by some
other means.

Art. 25. All persons in the territory of a Party to the conflict, or
in a territory occupied by it, shall be enabled to give news of a
strictly personal nature to members of their families, wherever they
may be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence shall be
forwarded speedily and without undue delay.

If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or impossible
to exchange family correspondence by the ordinary post, the Parties to
the conflict concerned shall apply to a neutral intermediary, such as
the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, and shall decide in
consultation with it how to ensure the fulfilment of their obligations
under the best possible conditions, in particular with the cooperation
of the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies.

If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to restrict family
correspondence, such restrictions shall be confined to the compulsory
use of standard forms containing twenty-five freely chosen words, and
to the limitation of the number of these forms despatched to one each

Art. 26. Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by
members of families dispersed owing to the war, with the object of
renewing contact with one another and of meeting, if possible. It
shall encourage, in particular, the work of organizations engaged on
this task provided they are acceptable to it and conform to its
security regulations.

Part III. Status and Treatment of Protected Persons

Section I. Provisions common to the territories of the parties to the
conflict and to occupied territories

Art. 27. Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to
respect for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their
religious convictions and practices, and their manners and customs.
They shall at all times be humanely treated, and shall be protected
especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against
insults and public curiosity.

Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their
honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitutiOn, or any form
of indecent assault.

Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health,
age and sex, all protected persons shall be treated with the same
consideration by the Party to the conflict in whose power they are,
without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race,
religion or political opinion.

However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures of control
and security in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a
result of the war.

Art. 28. The presence of a protected person may not be used to render
certain points or areas immune from military operations.

Art. 29. The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons
may be, is responsible for the treatment accorded to them by its
agents, irrespective of any individual responsibility which may be

Art. 30. Protected persons shall have every facility for making
application to the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of
the Red Cross, the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun)
Society of the country where they may be, as well as to any
organization that might assist them.

These several organizations shall be granted all facilities for that
purpose by the authorities, within the bounds set by military or
security considerations.

Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting Powers and of
the International Committee of the Red Cross, provided for by Article
143, the Detaining or Occupying Powers shall facilitate, as much as
possible, visits to protected persons by the representatives of other
organizations whose object is to give spiritual aid or material relief
to such persons.

Art. 31. No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against
protected persons, in particular to obtain information from them or
from third parties.

Art. 32. The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of
them is prohibited from taking any measure of such a character as to
cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected persons in
their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder, torture,
corporal punishments, mutilation and medical or scientific experiments
not necessitated by the medical treatment of a protected person, but
also to any other measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or
military agents.

Art. 33. No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she
has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all
measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.

Pillage is prohibited.

Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.

Art. 34. The taking of hostages is prohibited.

Section II. Aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict

Art. 35. All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory
at the outset of, or during a conflict, shall be entitled to do so,
unless their departure is contrary to the national interests of the
State. The applications of such persons to leave shall be decided in
accordance with regularly established procedures and the decision
shall be taken as rapidly as possible. Those persons permitted to
leave may provide themselves with the necessary funds for their
journey and take with them a reasonable amount of their effects and
articles of personal use.

If any such person is refused permission to leave the territory, he
shall be entitled to have refusal reconsidered, as soon as possible by
an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the
Detaining Power for that purpose.

Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless
reasons of security prevent it, or the persons concerned object, be
furnished with the reasons for refusal of any request for permission
to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously as possible, the
names of all persons who have been denied permission to leave.

Art. 36. Departures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be
carried out in satisfactory conditions as regards safety, hygiene,
sanitation and food. All costs in connection therewith, from the point
of exit in the territory of the Detaining Power, shall be borne by the
country of destination, or, in the case of accommodation in a neutral
country, by the Power whose nationals are benefited. The practical
details of such movements may, if necessary, be settled by special
agreements between the Powers concerned.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be
concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and
repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.

Art. 37. Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or
serving a sentence involving loss of liberty, shall during their
confinement be humanely treated.

As soon as they are released, they may ask to leave the territory in
conformity with the foregoing Articles.

Art. 38. With the exception of special measures authorized by the
present Convention, in particularly by Article 27 and 41 thereof, the
situation of protected persons shall continue to be regulated, in
principle, by the provisions concerning aliens in time of peace. In
any case, the following
rights shall be granted to them:

(1) they shall be enabled to receive the individual or collective
relief that may be sent to them.
(2) they shall, if their state of health so requires, receive medical
attention and hospital treatment to the same extent as the nationals
of the State concerned.
(3) they shall be allowed to practise their religion and to receive
spiritual assistance from ministers of their faith.
(4) if they reside in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of
war, they shall be authorized to move from that area to the same
extent as the nationals of the State concerned.
(5) children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers of
children under seven years shall benefit by any preferential treatment
to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.

Art. 39. Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have lost
their gainful employment, shall be granted the opportunity to find
paid employment. That opportunity shall, subject to security
considerations and to the provisions of Article 40, be equal to that
enjoyed by the nationals of the Power in whose territory they are.

Where a Party to the conflict applies to a protected person methods of
control which result in his being unable to support himself, and
especially if such a person is prevented for reasons of security from
finding paid employment on reasonable conditions, the said Party shall
ensure his support and that of his dependents.

Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their home
country, the Protecting Power, or the relief societies referred to in
Article 30.

Art. 40. Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the same
extent as nationals of the Party to the conflict in whose territory
they are.

If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only be
compelled to do work which is normally necessary to ensure the
feeding, sheltering, clothing, transport and health of human beings
and which is not directly related to the conduct of military

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected
persons compelled to work shall have the benefit of the same working
conditions and of the same safeguards as national workers in
particular as regards wages, hours of labour, clothing and equipment,
previous training and compensation for occupational accidents and

If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons shall be
allowed to exercise their right of complaint in accordance with
Article 30.

Art. 41. Should the Power, in whose hands protected persons may be,
consider the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention
to be inadequate, it may not have recourse to any other measure of
control more severe than that of assigned residence or internment, in
accordance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 43.

In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to the
cases of persons required to leave their usual places of residence by
virtue of a decision placing them in assigned residence elsewhere, the
Detaining Power shall be guided as closely as possible by the
standards of welfare set forth in Part III, Section IV of this

Art. 42. The internment or placing in assigned residence of protected
persons may be ordered only if the security of the Detaining Power
makes it absolutely necessary.

If any person, acting through the representatives of the Protecting
Power, voluntarily demands internment, and if his situation renders
this step necessary, he shall be interned by the Power in whose hands
he may be.

Art. 43. Any protected person who has been interned or placed in
assigned residence shall be entitled to have such action reconsidered
as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board
designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose. If the internment
or placing in assigned residence is maintained, the court or
administrative board shall periodically, and at least twice yearly,
give consideration to his or her case, with a view to the favourable
amendment of the initial decision, if circumstances permit.

Unless the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power
shall, as rapidly as possible, give the Protecting Power the names of
any protected persons who have been interned or subjected to assigned
residence, or who have been released from internment or assigned
residence. The decisions of the courts or boards mentioned in the
first paragraph of the present Article shall also, subject to the same
conditions, be notified as rapidly as possible to the Protecting

Art. 44. In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present
Convention, the Detaining Power shall not treat as enemy aliens
exclusively on the basis of their nationality de jure of an enemy
State, refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any

Art. 45. Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which
is not a party to the Convention.

This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the
repatriation of protected persons, or to their return to their country
of residence after the cessation of hostilities.

Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only to a
Power which is a party to the present Convention and after the
Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of
such transferee Power to apply the present Convention. If protected
persons are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for
the application of the present Convention rests on the Power accepting
them, while they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power fails
to carry out the provisions of the present Convention in any important
respect, the Power by which the protected persons were transferred
shall, upon being so notified by the Protecting Power, take effective
measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the
protected persons. Such request must be complied with.

In no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to a
country where he or she may have reason to fear persecution for his or
her political opinions or religious beliefs.

The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle to the
extradition, in pursuance of extradition treaties concluded before the
outbreak of hostilities, of protected persons accused of offences
against ordinary criminal law.

Art. 46. In so far as they have not been previously withdrawn,
restrictive measures taken regarding protected persons shall be
cancelled as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.

Restrictive measures affecting their property shall be cancelled, in
accordance with the law of the Detaining Power, as soon as possible
after the close of hostilities.

Section III. Occupied territories

Art. 47. Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be
deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of
the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the
occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the
said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities
of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any
annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied

Art. 48. Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose
territory is occupied, may avail themselves of the right to leave the
territory subject to the provisions of Article 35, and decisions
thereon shall be taken according to the procedure which the Occupying
Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.

Art. 49. Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as
deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the
territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country,
occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.

Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial
evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or
imperative military reasons so demand. Such evacuations may not
involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds of
the occupied territory except when for material reasons it is
impossible to avoid such displacement. Persons thus evacuated shall be
transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in
question have ceased.

The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall
ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation
is provided to receive the protected persons, that the removals are
effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene, health, safety and
nutrition, and that members of the same family are not separated.

The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and
evacuations as soon as they have taken place.

The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an area
particularly exposed to the dangers of war unless the security of the
population or imperative military reasons so demand.

The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own
civilian population into the territory it occupies.

Art. 50. The Occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the
national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all
institutions devoted to the care and education of children.

The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the
identification of children and the registration of their parentage. It
may not, in any case, change their personal status, nor enlist them in
formations or organizations subordinate to it.

Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the
Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and
education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language
and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their
parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for
by a near relative or friend.

A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 136
shall be responsible for taking all necessary steps to identify
children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars of their parents or
other near relatives should always be recorded if available.

The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any
preferential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection
against the effects of war which may have been adopted prior to the
occupation in favour of children under fifteen years, expectant
mothers, and mothers of children under seven years.

Art. 51. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve
in its armed or auxiliary forces. No pressure or propaganda which aims
at securing voluntary enlistment is permitted.

The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless
they are over eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is
necessary either for the needs of the army of occupation, or for the
public utility services, or for the feeding, sheltering, clothing,
transportation or health of the population of the occupied country.
Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which
would involve them in the obligation of taking part in military
operations. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to
employ forcible means to ensure the security of the installations
where they are performing compulsory labour.

The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the
persons whose services have been requisitioned are. Every such person
shall, so far as possible, be kept in his usual place of employment.
Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the work shall be proportionate
to their physical and intellectual capacities. The legislation in
force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and
safeguards as regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours of
work, equipment, preliminary training and compensation for
occupational accidents and diseases, shall be applicable to the
protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.

In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilization of
workers in an organization of a military or semi-military character.

Art. 52. No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right
of any worker, whether voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to
apply to the representatives of the Protecting Power in order to
request the said Power's intervention.

All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the
opportunities offered to workers in an occupied territory, in order to
induce them to work for the Occupying Power, are prohibited.

Art. 53. Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal
property belonging individually or collectively to private persons, or
to the State, or to other public authorities, or to social or
cooperative organizations, is prohibited, except where such
destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.

Art. 54. The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public
officials or judges in the occupied territories, or in any way apply
sanctions to or take any measures of coercion or discrimination
against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions for
reasons of conscience.

This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second
paragraph of Article 51. It does not affect the right of the Occupying
Power to remove public officials from their posts.

Art. 55. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the
Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies
of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary
foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the
occupied territory are inadequate.

The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or
medical supplies available in the occupied territory, except for use
by the occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only
if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into
account. Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions,
the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value
is paid for any requisitioned goods.

The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to verify the
state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except
where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military

Art. 56. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the
Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the
cooperation of national and local authorities, the medical and
hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the
occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and
application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to
combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical
personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their

If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent
organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying
authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided
for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities
shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport
vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.

In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their
implementation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the
moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied

Art. 57. The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals of
hospitals only temporarily and only in cases of urgent necessity for
the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition that
suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment
of the patients and for the needs of the civilian population for
hospital accommodation.

The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned
so long as they are necessary for the needs of the civilian

Art. 58. The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to
give spiritual assistance to the members of their religious

The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and
articles required for religious needs and shall facilitate their
distribution in occupied territory.

Art. 59. If the whole or part of the population of an occupied
territory is inadequately supplied, the Occupying Power shall agree to
relief schemes on behalf of the said population, and shall facilitate
them by all the means at its disposal.

Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial
humanitarian organizations such as the International Committee of the
Red Cross, shall consist, in particular, of the provision of
consignments of foodstuffs, medical supplies and clothing.

All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these
consignments and shall guarantee their protection.

A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to
territory occupied by an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however,
have the right to search the consignments, to regulate their passage
according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably
satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to
be used for the relief of the needy population and are not to be used
for the benefit of the Occupying Power.

Art. 60. Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying
Power of any of its responsibilities under Articles 55, 56 and 59. The
Occupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert relief consignments
from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases of
urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied
territory and with the consent of the Protecting Power.

Art. 61. The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in
the foregoing Articles shall be carried out with the cooperation and
under the supervision of the Protecting Power. This duty may also be
delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and the Protecting
Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red
Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.

Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all
charges, taxes or customs duties unless these are necessary in the
interests of the economy of the territory. The Occupying Power shall
facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments.

All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and
transport, free of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to
occupied territories.

Art. 62. Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons
in occupied territories shall be permitted to receive the individual
relief consignments sent to them.

Art. 63. Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for
urgent reasons of security by the Occupying Power:

(a) recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun)
Societies shall be able to pursue their activities in accordance with
Red Cross principles, as defined by the International Red Cross
Conferences. Other relief societies shall be permitted to continue
their humanitarian activities under similar conditions;
(b) the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the personnel
or structure of these societies, which would prejudice the aforesaid

The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of
special organizations of a non-military character, which already exist
or which may be established, for the purpose of ensuring the living
conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance of the
essential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and
by the organization of rescues.

Art. 64. The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in
force, with the exception that they may be repealed or suspended by
the Occupying Power in cases where they constitute a threat to its
security or an obstacle to the application of the present Convention.

Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring
the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied
territory shall continue to function in respect of all offences
covered by the said laws.

The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the
occupied territory to provisions which are essential to enable the
Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations under the present
Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory, and
to ensure the security of the Occupying Power, of the members and
property of the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of
the establishments and lines of communication used by them.

Art. 65. The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not
come into force before they have been published and brought to the
knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of
these penal provisions shall not be retroactive.

Art. 66. In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it
by virtue of the second paragraph of Article 64 the Occupying Power
may hand over the accused to its properly constituted, non-political
military courts, on condition that the said courts sit in the occupied
country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied

Art. 67. The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which
were applicable prior to the offence, and which are in accordance with
general principles of law, in particular the principle that the
penalty shall be proportionate to the offence. They shall take into
consideration the fact the accused is not a national of the Occupying

Art. 68. Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely
intended to harm the Occupying Power, but which does not constitute an
attempt on the life or limb of members of the occupying forces or
administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously damage
the property of the occupying forces or administration or the
installations used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple
imprisonment, provided the duration of such internment or imprisonment
is proportionate to the offence committed. Furthermore, internment or
imprisonment shall, for such offences, be the only measure adopted for
depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for under
Article 66 of the present Convention may at their discretion convert a
sentence of imprisonment to one of internment for the same period.

The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance
with Articles 64 and 65 may impose the death penalty against a
protected person only in cases where the person is guilty of
espionage, of serious acts of sabotage against the military
installations of the Occupying Power or of intentional offences which
have caused the death of one or more persons, provided that such
offences were punishable by death under the law of the occupied
territory in force before the occupation began.

The death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person
unless the attention of the court has been particularly called to the
fact that since the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power,
he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.

In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced on a protected
person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.

Art. 69. In all cases the duration of the period during which a
protected person accused of an offence is under arrest awaiting trial
or punishment shall be deducted from any period of imprisonment of

Art. 70. Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or
convicted by the Occupying Power for acts committed or for opinions
expressed before the occupation, or during a temporary interruption
thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs of

Nationals of the occupying Power who, before the outbreak of
hostilities, have sought refuge in the territory of the occupied
State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted, convicted or deported from
the occupied territory, except for offences committed after the
outbreak of hostilities, or for offences under common law committed
before the outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the
occupied State, would have justified extradition in time of peace.

Art. 71. No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of
the Occupying Power except after a regular trial.

Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be
promptly informed, in writing, in a language which they understand, of
the particulars of the charges preferred against them, and shall be
brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The Protecting Power shall be
informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against
protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty or
imprisonment for two years or more; it shall be enabled, at any time,
to obtain information regarding the state of such proceedings.
Furthermore, the Protecting Power shall be entitled, on request, to be
furnished with all particulars of these and of any other proceedings
instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons.

The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the
second paragraph above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any
case reach the Protecting Power three weeks before the date of the
first hearing. Unless, at the opening of the trial, evidence is
submitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with,
the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the
following particulars:
(a) description of the accused;
(b) place of residence or detention;
(c) specification of the charge or charges (with mention of the penal
provisions under which it is brought);
(d) designation of the court which will hear the case;
(e) place and date of the first hearing.

Art. 72. Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence
necessary to their defence and may, in particular, call witnesses.
They shall have the right to be assisted by a qualified advocate or
counsel of their own choice, who shall be able to visit them freely
and shall enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing the defence.

Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide him
with an advocate or counsel. When an accused person has to meet a
serious charge and the Protecting Power is not functioning, the
Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused, shall provide
an advocate or counsel.

Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be
aided by an interpreter, both during preliminary investigation and
during the hearing in court. They shall have the right at any time to
object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.

Art.73. A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for
by the laws applied by the court. He shall be fully informed of his
right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may
do so.

The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as
far as it is applicable, to appeals. Where the laws applied by the
Court make no provision for appeals, the convicted person shall have
the right to petition against the finding and sentence to the
competent authority of the Occupying Power.

Art. 74. Representatives of the Protecting Power shall have the right
to attend the trial of any protected person, unless the hearing has,
as an exceptional measure, to be held in camera in the interests of
the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify the
Protecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of
trial shall be sent to the Protecting Power.

Any judgement involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for two
years or more, shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as
rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power. The notification shall
contain a reference to the notification made under Article 71 and, in
the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the
sentence is to be served. A record of judgements other than those
referred to above shall be kept by the court and shall be open to
inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power. Any period
allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving the death
penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shall not run until
notification of judgement has been received by the Protecting Power.

Art. 75. In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of
the right of petition for pardon or reprieve.

No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a
period of a least six months from the date of receipt by the
Protecting Power of the notification of the final judgment confirming
such death sentence, or of an order denying pardon or reprieve.

The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein
prescribed may be reduced in individual cases in circumstances of
grave emergency involving an organized threat to the security of the
Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that the Protecting
Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and
opportunity to make representations to the competent occupying
authorities in respect of such death sentences.

Art. 76. Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in
the occupied country, and if convicted they shall serve their
sentences therein. They shall, if possible, be separated from other
detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which will be
sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least
equal to those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.

They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of

They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance
which they may require.

Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the
direct supervision of women.

Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.

Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited
by delegates of the Protecting Power and of the International
Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of
Article 143.

Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief
parcel monthly.

Art. 77. Protected persons who have been accused of offences or
convicted by the courts in occupied territory, shall be handed over at
the close of occupation, with the relevant records, to the authorities
of the liberated territory.

Art. 78. If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative
reasons of security, to take safety measures concerning protected
persons, it may, at the most, subject them to assigned residence or to

Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be
made according to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the
Occupying Power in accordance with the provisions of the present
Convention. This procedure shall include the right of appeal for the
parties concerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible
delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject
to periodical review, if possible every six months, by a competent
body set up by the said Power.

Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required
to leave their homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of the
present Convention.

Section IV. Regulations for the treatment of internees

Chapter I. General provisions

Art. 79. The Parties to the conflict shall not intern protected
persons, except in accordance with the provisions of Articles 41, 42,
43, 68 and 78.

Art. 80. Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall
exercise such attendant rights as may be compatible with their status.

Art. 81. Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be
bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance, and to grant
them also the medical attention required by their state of health.

No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to the
internees shall be made for the repayment of these costs.

The Detaining Power shall provide for the support of those dependent
on the internees, if such dependents are without adequate means of
support or are unable to earn a living.

Art.82. The Detaining Power shall, as far as possible, accommodate the
internees according to their nationality, language and customs.
Internees who are nationals of the same country shall not be separated
merely because they have different languages.

Throughout the duration of their internment, members of the same
family, and in particular parents and children, shall be lodged
together in the same place of internment, except when separation of a
temporary nature is necessitated for reasons of employment or health
or for the purposes of enforcement of the provisions of Chapter IX of
the present Section. Internees may request that their children who are
left at liberty without parental care shall be interned with them.

Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be housed
in the same premises and given separate accommodation from other
internees, together with facilities for leading a proper family life.

Chapter II. Places of Internment

Art. 83. The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment in
areas particularly exposed to the dangers of war.

The Detaining Power shall give the enemy Powers, through the
intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information
regarding the geographical location of places of internment.

Whenever military considerations permit, internment camps shall be
indicated by the letters IC, placed so as to be clearly visible in the
daytime from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon
any other system of marking. No place other than an internment camp
shall be marked as such.

Art.84. Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately
from prisoners of war and from persons deprived of liberty for any
other reason.

Art. 85. The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and
possible measures to ensure that protected persons shall, from the
outset of their internment, be accommodated in buildings or quarters
which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene and health,
and provide efficient protection against the rigours of the climate
and the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of
internment be situated in unhealthy areas or in districts, the climate
of which is injurious to the internees. In all cases where the
district, in which a protected person is temporarily interned, is in
an unhealthy area or has a climate which is harmful to his health, he
shall be removed to a more suitable place of internment as rapidly as
circumstances permit.

The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated
and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. The sleeping
quarters shall be sufficiently spacious and well ventilated, and the
internees shall have suitable bedding and sufficient blankets, account
being taken of the climate, and the age, sex, and state of health of
the internees.

Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary
conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene, and are constantly
maintained in a state of cleanliness. They shall be provided with
sufficient water and soap for their daily personal toilet and for
washing their personal laundry; installations and facilities necessary
for this purpose shall be granted to them. Showers or baths shall also
be available. The necessary time shall be set aside for washing and
for cleaning.

Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure, to
accommodate women internees who are not members of a family unit in
the same place of internment as men, the provision of separate
sleeping quarters and sanitary conveniences for the use of such women
internees shall be obligatory.

Art. 86. The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned
persons, of whatever denomination, premises suitable for the holding
of their religious services.

Art. 87. Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment,
except where other suitable facilities are available. Their purpose
shall be to enable internees to make purchases, at prices not higher
than local market prices, of foodstuffs and articles of everyday use,
including soap and tobacco, such as would increase their personal well-
being and comfort.

Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare fund to be set
up for each place of internment, and administered for the benefit of
the internees attached to such place of internment. The Internee
Committee provided for in Article 102 shall have the right to check
the management of the canteen and of the said fund.

When a place of internment is closed down, the balance of the welfare
fund shall be transferred to the welfare fund of a place of internment
for internees of the same nationality, or, if such a place does not
exist, to a central welfare fund which shall be administered for the
benefit of all internees remaining in the custody of the Detaining
Power. In case of a general release, the said profits shall be kept by
the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between
the Powers concerned.

Art. 88. In all places of internment exposed to air raids and other
hazards of war, shelters adequate in number and structure to ensure
the necessary protection shall be installed. In case of alarms, the
measures internees shall be free to enter such shelters as quickly as
possible, excepting those who remain for the protection of their
quarters against the aforesaid hazards. Any protective measures taken
in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

All due precautions must be taken in places of internment against the
danger of fire.

Chapter III. Food and Clothing

Art. 89. Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in
quantity, quality and variety to keep internees in a good state of
health and prevent the development of nutritional deficiencies.
Account shall also be taken of the customary diet of the internees.

Internees shall also be given the means by which they can prepare for
themselves any additional food in their possession.

Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to internees. The use of
tobacco shall be permitted.

Internees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion to
the kind of labour which they perform.

Expectant and nursing mothers and children under fifteen years of age,
shall be given additional food, in proportion to their physiological

Art. 90. When taken into custody, internees shall be given all
facilities to provide themselves with the necessary clothing, footwear
and change of underwear, and later on, to procure further supplies if
required. Should any internees not have sufficient clothing, account
being taken of the climate, and be unable to procure any, it shall be
provided free of charge to them by the Detaining Power.

The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and the
outward markings placed on their own clothes shall not be ignominious
nor expose them to ridicule.

Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective
clothing, whenever the nature of their work so requires.

Chapter IV. Hygiene and Medical Attention

Art. 91. Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary,
under the direction of a qualified doctor, where internees may have
the attention they require, as well as an appropriate diet. Isolation
wards shall be set aside for cases of contagious or mental diseases.

Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or
whose condition requires special treatment, a surgical operation or
hospital care, must be admitted to any institution where adequate
treatment can be given and shall receive care not inferior to that
provided for the general population.

Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical
personnel of their own nationality.

Internees may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the
medical authorities for examination. The medical authorities of the
Detaining Power shall, upon request, issue to every internee who has
undergone treatment an official certificate showing the nature of his
illness or injury, and the duration and nature of the treatment given.
A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central
Agency provided for in Article 140.

Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the
maintenance of internees in good health, particularly dentures and
other artificial appliances and spectacles, shall be free of charge to
the internee.

Art. 92. Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once
a month. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the
general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of internees, and
to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria, and
venereal diseases. Such inspections shall include, in particular, the
checking of weight of each internee and, at least once a year,
radioscopic examination.

Chapter V. Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities

Art. 93. Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of
their religious duties, including attendance at the services of their
faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine
prescribed by the detaining authorities.

Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to minister
freely to the members of their community. For this purpose the
Detaining Power shall ensure their equitable allocation amongst the
various places of internment in which there are internees speaking the
same language and belonging to the same religion. Should such
ministers be too few in number, the Detaining Power shall provide them
with the necessary facilities, including means of transport, for
moving from one place to another, and they shall be authorized to
visit any internees who are in hospital. Ministers of religion shall
be at liberty to correspond on matters concerning their ministry with
the religious authorities in the country of detention and, as far as
possible, with the international religious organizations of their
faith. Such correspondence shall not be considered as forming a part
of the quota mentioned in Article 107. It shall, however, be subject
to the provisions of Article 112.

When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance of
ministers of their faith, or should these latter be too few in number,
the local religious authorities of the same faith may appoint, in
agreement with the Detaining Power, a minister of the internees' faith
or, if such a course is feasible from a denominational point of view,
a minister of similar religion or a qualified layman. The latter shall
enjoy the facilities granted to the ministry he has assumed. Persons
so appointed shall comply with all regulations laid down by the
Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and security.

Art. 94. The Detaining Power shall encourage intellectual, educational
and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst internees, whilst
leaving them free to take part in them or not. It shall take all
practicable measures to ensure the exercice thereof, in particular by
providing suitable premises.

All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue
their studies or to take up new subjects. The education of children
and young people shall be ensured; they shall be allowed to attend
schools either within the place of internment or outside.

Internees shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports
and outdoor games. For this purpose, sufficient open spaces shall be
set aside in all places of internment. Special playgrounds shall be
reserved for children and young people.

Art. 95. The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers,
unless they so desire. Employment which, if undertaken under
compulsion by a protected person not in internment, would involve a
breach of Articles 40 or 51 of the present Convention, and employment
on work which is of a degrading or humiliating character are in any
case prohibited.

After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be free to give
up work at any moment, subject to eight days' notice.

These provisions constitute no obstacle to the right of the Detaining
Power to employ interned doctors, dentists and other medical personnel
in their professional capacity on behalf of their fellow internees, or
to employ internees for administrative and maintenance work in places
of internment and to detail such persons for work in the kitchens or
for other domestic tasks, or to require such persons to undertake
duties connected with the protection of internees against aerial
bombardment or other war risks. No internee may, however, be required
to perform tasks for which he is, in the opinion of a medical officer,
physically unsuited.

The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working
conditions, for medical attention, for the payment of wages, and for
ensuring that all employed internees receive compensation for
occupational accidents and diseases. The standards prescribed for the
said working conditions and for compensation shall be in accordance
with the national laws and regulations, and with the existing
practice; they shall in no case be inferior to those obtaining for
work of the same nature in the same district. Wages for work done
shall be determined on an equitable basis by special agreements
between the internees, the Detaining Power, and, if the case arises,
employers other than the Detaining Power to provide for free
maintenance of internees and for the medical attention which their
state of health may require. Internees permanently detailed for
categories of work mentioned in the third paragraph of this Article,
shall be paid fair wages by the Detaining Power. The working
conditions and the scale of compensation for occupational accidents
and diseases to internees, thus
detailed, shall not be inferior to those applicable to work of the
same nature in the same district.

Art.96. All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon
a place of internment. The competent authorities of the Detaining
Power and the commandant of a place of internment shall be responsible
for the observance in a labour detachment of the provisions of the
present Convention. The commandant shall keep an up-to-date list of
the labour detachments subordinate to him and shall communicate it to
the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Committee
of the Red Cross and of other humanitarian organizations who may visit
the places of internment.

Chapter VI. Personal Property and Financial Resources

Art. 97. Internees shall be permitted to retain articles of personal
use. Monies, cheques, bonds, etc., and valuables in their possession
may not be taken from them except in accordance with established
procedure. Detailed receipts shall be given therefor.

The amounts shall be paid into the account of every internee as
provided for in Article 98. Such amounts may not be converted into any
other currency unless legislation in force in the territory in which
the owner is interned so requires or the internee gives his consent.

Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value may not
be taken away.

A woman internee shall not be searched except by a woman.

On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles,
monies or other valuables taken from them during internment and shall
receive in currency the balance of any credit to their accounts kept
in accordance with Article 98, with the exception of any articles or
amounts withheld by the Detaining Power by virtue of its legislation
in force. If the property of an internee is so withheld, the owner
shall receive a detailed receipt.

Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may not be
taken away without a receipt being given. At no time shall internees
be left without identity documents. If they have none, they shall be
issued with special documents drawn up by the detaining authorities,
which will serve as their identity papers until the end of their

Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of money, in cash
or in the shape of purchase coupons, to enable them to make purchases.

Art. 98. All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to
enable them to purchase goods and articles, such as tobacco, toilet
requisites, etc. Such allowances may take the form of credits or
purchase coupons.

Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to which
they owe allegiance, the Protecting Powers, the organizations which
may assist them, or their families, as well as the income on their
property in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power. The amount
of allowances granted by the Power to which they o~e allegiance shall
be the same for each category of internees (infirm, sick, pregnant
women, etc.) but may not be allocated by that Power or distributed by
the Detaining Power on the basis of discriminations between internees
which are prohibited by Article 27 of the present Convention.

The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every internee,
to which shall be credited the allowances named in the present
Article, the wages earned and the remittances received, together with
such sums taken from him as may be available under the legislation in
force in the territory in which he is interned. Internees shall be
granted all facilities consistent with the legislation in force in
such territory to make remittances to their families and to other
dependants. They may draw from their accounts the amounts necessary
for their personal expenses, within the limits fixed by the Detaining
Power. They shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for
consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts. A statement of
accounts shall be furnished to the Protecting Power, on request, and
shall accompany the internee in case of transfer.

Chapter VII. Administration and Discipline

Art. 99. Every place of internment shall be put under the authority of
a responsible officer, chosen from the regular military forces or the
regular civil administration of the Detaining Power. The officer in
charge of the place of internment must have in his possession a copy
of the present Convention in the official language, or one of the
official languages, of his country and shall be responsible for its
application. The staff in control of internees shall be instructed in
the provisions of the present Convention and of the administrative
measures adopted to ensure its application.

The text of the present Convention and the texts of special agreements
concluded under the said Convention shall be posted inside the place
of internment, in a language which the internees understand, or shall
be in the possession of the Internee Committee.

Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be
communicated to the internees and posted inside the places of
internment, in a language which they understand.

Every order and command addressed to internees individually must,
likewise, be given in a language which they understand.

Art. 100. The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be
consistent with humanitarian principles, and shall in no circumstances
include regulations imposing on internees any physical exertion
dangerous to their health or involving physical or moral
victimization. Identification by tattooing or imprinting signs or
markings on the body, is prohibited.

In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill,
military drill and manoeuvres, or the reduction of food rations, are

Art. 101. Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities
in whose power they are, any petition with regard to the conditions of
internment to which they are subjected.

They shall also have the right to apply without restriction through
the Internee Committee or, if they consider it necessary, direct to
the representatives of the Protecting Power, in order to indicate to
them any points on which they may have complaints to make with regard
to the conditions of internment.

Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and
without alteration, and even if the latter are recognized to be
unfounded, they may not occasion any punishment.

Periodic reports on the situation in places of internment and as to
the needs of the internees may be sent by the Internee Committees to
the representatives of the Protecting Powers.

Art. 102. In every place of internment, the internees shall freely
elect by secret ballot every six months, the members of a Committee
empowered to represent them before the Detaining and the Protecting
Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other
organization which may assist them. The members of the Committee shall
be eligible for re-election.

Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their
election has been approved by the detaining authorities. The reasons
for any refusals or dismissals shall be communicated to the Protecting
Powers concerned.

Art. 103. The Internee Committees shall further the physical,
spiritual and intellectual well-being of the internees.

In case the internees decide, in particular, to organize a system of
mutual assistance amongst themselves, this organization would be
within the competence of the Committees in addition to the special
duties entrusted to them under other provisions of the present

Art. 104. Members of Internee Committees shall not be required to
perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is
rendered more difficult thereby.

Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees
such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be
granted to them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary
for the accomplishment of their duties (visits to labour detachments,
receipt of supplies, etc.).

All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee
Committees for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining
authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the
Red Cross and their delegates, and with the organizations which give
assistance to internees. Committee members in labour detachments shall
enjoy similar facilities for communication with their Internee
Committee in the principal place of internment. Such communications
shall not be limited, nor considered as forming a part of the quota
mentioned in Article 107.

Members of Internee Committees who are transferred shall be allowed a
reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.

Chaper VIII. Relations with the Exterior

Art. 105. Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining
Powers shall inform them, the Power to which they owe allegiance and
their Protecting Power of the measures taken for executing the
provisions of the present Chapter. The Detaining Powers shall likewise
inform the Parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such

Art. 106. As soon as he is interned, or at the latest not more than
one week after his arrival in a place of internment, and likewise in
cases of sickness or transfer to another place of internment or to a
hospital, every internee shall be enabled to send direct to his
family, on the one hand, and to the Central Agency provided for by
Article 140, on the other, an internment card similar, if possible, to
the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives
of his detention, address and state of health. The said cards shall be
forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any way.

Art. 107. Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and
cards. If the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number
of letters and cards sent by each internee, the said number shall not
be less than two letters and four cards monthly; these shall be drawn
up so as to conform as closely as possible to the models annexed to
the present Convention. If limitations must be placed on the
correspondence addressed to internees, they may be ordered only by the
Power to which such internees owe allegiance, possibly at the request
of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed with
reasonable despatch; they may not be delayed or retained for
disciplinary reasons.

Internees who have been a long time without news, or who find it
impossible to receive news from their relatives, or to give them news
by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a
considerable distance from their homes, shall be allowed to send
telegrams, the charges being paid by them in the currency at their
disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this provision in cases which
are recognized to be urgent.

As a rule, internees' mail shall be written in their own language. The
Parties to the conflict may authorize correspondence in other

Art. 108. Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by any
other means, individual parcels or collective shipments containing in
particular foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies, as well as books
and objects of a devotional, educational or recreational character
which may meet their needs. Such shipments shall in no way free the
Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the
present Convention.

Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to be
limited, due notice thereof shall be given to the Protecting Power and
to the International Committee of the Red Cross, or to any other
organization giving assistance to the internees and responsible for
the forwarding of such shipments.

The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective
shipments shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements
between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt
by the internees of relief supplies. Parcels of clothing and
foodstuffs may not include books. Medical relief supplies shall, as a
rule, be sent in collective parcels.

Art. 109. In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the
conflict regarding the conditions for the receipt and distribution of
collective relief shipments, the regulations concerning collective
relief which are annexed to the present Convention shall be applied.

The special agreements provided for above shall in no case restrict
the right of Internee Committees to take possession of collective
relief shipments intended for internees, to undertake their
distribution and to dispose of them in the interests of the
recipients. Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of
representatives of the Protecting Powers, the International Committee
of the Red Cross, or any other organization giving assistance to
internees and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments,
to supervise their distribution to the recipients.

Art. 110. An relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from
import, customs and other dues.

All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by parcel post
and remittances of money, addressed from other countries to internees
or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or
through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136 and the
Central Information Agency provided for in Article 140, shall be
exempt from all postal dues both in the countries of origin and
destination and in intermediate countries. To this end, in particular,
the exemption provided by the Universal Postal Convention of 1947 and
by the agreements of the Universal Postal Union in favour of civilians
of enemy nationality detained in camps or civilian prisons, shall be
extended to the other interned persons protected by the present
Convention. The countries not signatory to the above-mentioned
agreements shall be bound to grant freedom from charges in the same

The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for
internees and which, by reason of their weight or any other cause,
cannot be sent through the post office, shall be borne by the
Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. Other Powers
which are Parties to the present Convention shall bear the cost of
transport in their respective territories.

Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are not
covered by the above paragraphs, shall be charged to the senders.

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as
possible, the charges for telegrams sent by internees, or addressed to

Art. 111. Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from
fulfilling their obligation to ensure the conveyance of the mail and
relief shipments provided for in Articles 106, 107, 108 and 113, the
Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red
Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the
conflict may undertake the conveyance of such shipments by suitable
means (rail, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraft, etc.). For this
purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to supply them
with such transport, and to allow its circulation, especially by
granting the necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:
(a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central
Information Agency referred to in Article 140 and the National Bureaux
referred to in Article 136;
(b) correspondence and reports relating to internees which the
Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any
other organization assisting the internees exchange either with their
own delegates or with the Parties to the conflict.

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the
conflict to arrange other means of transport if it should so prefer,
nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed
conditions, to such means of transport.

The costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be
borne, in proportion to the importance of the shipments, by the
Parties to the conflict whose nationals are benefited thereby.

Art. 112. The censoring of correspondence addressed to internees or
despatched by them shall be done as quickly as possible.

The examination of consignments intended for internees shall not be
carried out under conditions that will expose the goods contained in
them to deterioration. It shall be done in the presence of the
addressee, or of a fellow-internee duly delegated by him. The delivery
to internees of individual or collective consignments shall not be
delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.

Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by the Parties to the
conflict either for military or political reasons, shall be only
temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.

Art. 113. The Detaining Powers shall provide all reasonable execution
facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the
Central Agency provided for in Article 140, or as otherwise required,
of wills, powers of attorney, letters of authority, or any other
documents intended for internees or despatched by them.

In all cases the Detaining Powers shall facilitate the execution and
authentication in due legal form of such documents on behalf of
internees, in particular by allowing them to consult a lawyer.

Art. 114. The Detaining Power shall afford internees all facilities to
enable them to manage their property, provided this is not
incompatible with the conditions of internment and the law which is
applicable. For this purpose, the said Power may give them permission
to leave the place of internment in urgent cases and if circumstances

Art. 115. In all cases where an internee is a party to proceedings in
any court, the Detaining Power shall, if he so requests, cause the
court to be informed of his detention and shall, within legal limits,
ensure that all necessary steps are taken to prevent him from being in
any way prejudiced, by reason of his internment, as regards the
preparation and conduct of his case or as regards the execution of any
judgment of the court.

Art.116. Every internee shall be allowed to receive visitors,
especially near relatives, at regular intervals and as frequently as

As far as is possible, internees shall be permitted to visit their
homes in urgent cases, particularly in cases of death or serious
illness of relatives.

Chapter IX. Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions

Art. 117. Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws
in force in the territory in which they are detained will continue to
apply to internees who commit offences during internment.

If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by
internees to be punishable, whereas the same acts are not punishable
when committed by persons who are not internees, such acts shall
entail disciplinary punishments only.

No internee may be punished more than once for the same act, or on the
same count.

Art. 118. The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as
far as possible into account the fact that the defendant is not a
national of the Detaining Power. They shall be free to reduce the
penalty prescribed for the offence with which the internee is charged
and shall not be obliged, to this end, to apply the minimum sentence

Imprisonment in premises without daylight, and, in general, all forms
of cruelty without exception are forbidden.

Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences shall not
be treated differently from other internees.

The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall be
deducted from any disciplinary or judicial penalty involving
confinement to which he may be sentenced.

Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings
instituted against internees whom they represent, and of their result.

Art. 119. The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall
be the following:

(1) a fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the wages which the
internee would otherwise receive under the provisions of Article 95
during a period of not more than thirty days.
(2) discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment
provided for by the present Convention
(3) fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in connection with
the maintenance of the place of internment.
(4) confinement.

In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal or
dangerous for the health of internees. Account shall be taken of the
internee's age, sex and state of health.

The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed a
maximum of thirty consecutive days, even if the internee is answerable
for several breaches of discipline when his case is dealt with,
whether such breaches are connected or not.

Art. 120. Internees who are recaptured after having escaped or when
attempting to escape, shall be liable only to disciplinary punishment
in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.

Article 118, paragraph 3, notwithstanding, internees punished as a
result of escape or attempt to escape, may be subjected to special
surveillance, on condition that such surveillance does not affect the
state of their health, that it is exercised in a place of internment
and that it does not entail the abolition of any of the safeguards
granted by the present Convention.

Internees who aid and abet an escape or attempt to escape, shall be
liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.

Art. 121. Escape, or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated
offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance in cases
where an internee is prosecuted for offences committed during his

The Parties to the conflict shall ensure that the competent
authorities exercise leniency in deciding whether punishment inflicted
for an offence shall be of a disciplinary or judicial nature,
especially in respect of acts committed in connection with an escape,
whether successful or not.

Art. 122. Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be
investigated immediately. This rule shall be applied, in particular,
in cases of escape or attempt to escape. Recaptured internees shall be
handed over to the competent authorities as soon as possible.

In cases of offences against discipline, confinement awaiting trial
shall be reduced to an absolute minimum for all internees, and shall
not exceed fourteen days. Its duration shall in any case be deducted
from any sentence of confinement.

The provisions of Articles 124 and 125 shall apply to internees who
are in confinement awaiting trial for offences against discipline.

Art. 123. Without prejudice to the competence of courts and higher
authorities, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by the
commandant of the place of internment, or by a responsible officer or
official who replaces him, or to whom he has delegated his
disciplinary powers.

Before any disciplinary punishment is awarded, the accused internee
shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he
is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of
defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular, to call
witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a
qualified interpreter. The decision shall be announced in the presence
of the accused and of a member of the Internee Committee.

The period elapsing between the time of award of a disciplinary
punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.

When an internee is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a
period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of
any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten
days or more.

A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the
commandant of the place of internment and shall be open to inspection
by representatives of the Protecting Power.

Art. 124. Internees shall not in any case be transferred to
penitentiary establishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons,
etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.

The premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall
to sanitary requirements: they shall in particular be provided with
adequate bedding. Internees undergoing punishment shall be enabled to
keep themselves in a state of cleanliness.

Women internees undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be confined
in separate quarters from male internees and shall be under the
immediate supervision of women.

Art. 125. Internees awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed
to exercise and to stay in the open air at least two hours daily.

They shall be allowed, if they so request, to be present at the daily
medical inspections. They shall receive the attention which their
state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the
infirmary of the place of internment or to a hospital.

They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and
receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money, however, may be
withheld from them until the completion of their punishment; such
consignments shall meanwhile be entrusted to the Internee Committee,
who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained in
the parcels.

No internee given a disciplinary punishment may be deprived of the
benefit of the provisions of Articles 107 and 143 of the present

Art. 126. The provisions of Articles 71 to 76 inclusive shall apply,
by analogy, to proceedings against internees who are in the national
territory of the Detaining Power.

Chapter X. Transfers of Internees

Art. 127. The transfer of internees shall always be effected humanely.
As a general rule, it shall be carried out by rail or other means of
transport, and under conditions at least equal to those obtaining for
the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station. If, as
an exceptional measure, such removals have to be effected on foot,
they may not take place unless the internees are in a fit state of
health, and may not in any case expose them to excessive fatigue.

The Detaining Power shall supply internees during transfer with
drinking water and food sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to
maintain them in good health, and also with the necessary clothing,
adequate shelter and the necessary medical attention. The Detaining
Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety
during transfer, and shall establish before their departure a complete
list of all internees transferred.

Sick, wounded or infirm internees and maternity cases shall not be
transferred if the journey would be seriously detrimental to them,
unless their safety imperatively so demands.

If the combat zone draws close to a place of internment, the internees
in the said place shall not be transferred unless their removal can be
carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or unless they are
exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being

When making decisions regarding the transfer of internees, the
Detaining Power shall take their interests into account and, in
particular, shall not do anything to increase the difficulties of
repatriating them or returning them to their own homes.

Art. 128. In the event of transfer, internees shall be officially
advised of their departure and of their new postal address. Such
notification shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and
inform their next of kin.

They shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and
the correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight
of such baggage may be limited if the conditions of transfer so
require, but in no case to less than twenty-five kilograms per

Mail and parcels addressed to their former place of internment shall
be forwarded to them without delay.

The commandant of the place of internment shall take, in agreement
with the Internee Committee, any measures needed to ensure the
transport of the internees' community property and of the luggage the
internees are unable to take with them in consequence of restrictions
imposed by virtue of the second paragraph.

Chapter XI. Deaths

Art. 129. The wills of internees shall be received for safe-keeping by
the responsible authorities; and if the event of the death of an
internee his will shall be transmitted without delay to a person whom
he has previously designated.
Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by a doctor, and
a death certificate shall be made out, showing the causes of death and
the conditions under which it occurred.

An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be drawn up in
accordance with the procedure relating thereto in force in the
territory where the place of internment is situated, and a duly
certified copy of such record shall be transmitted without delay to
the Protecting Power as well as to the Central Agency referred to in
Article 140.

Art. 130. The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who
die while interned are honourably buried, if possible according to the
rites of the religion to which they belonged and that their graves are
respected, properly maintained, and marked in such a way that they can
always be recognized.

Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless
unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies
may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of
the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his expressed wish
to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the
reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased. The ashes
shall be retained for safe-keeping by the detaining authorities and
shall be transferred as soon as possible to the next of kin on their

As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the close of
hostilities, the Detaining Power shall forward lists of graves of
deceased internees to the Powers on whom deceased internees depended,
through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136. Such
lists shall include all particulars necessary for the identification
of the deceased internees, as well as the exact location of their

Art. 131. Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or
suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another internee or any
other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown,
shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining

A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the
Protecting Power. The evidence of any witnesses shall be taken, and a
report including such evidence shall be prepared and forwarded to the
said Protecting Power.

If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the
Detaining Power shall take all necessary steps to ensure the
prosecution of the person or persons responsible.

Chapter XIII. Release, Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral

Art. 132. Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining
Power as soon as the reasons which necessitated his internment no
longer exist.

The Parties to the conflict shall, moreover, endeavour during the
course of hostilities, to conclude agreements for the release, the
repatriation, the return to places of residence or the accommodation
in a neutral country of certain classes of internees, in particular
children, pregnant women and mothers with infants and young children,
wounded and sick, and internees who have been detained for a long

Art. 133. Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close
of hostilities.

Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict against whom
penal proceedings are pending for offences not exclusively subject to
disciplinary penalties, may be detained until the close of such
proceedings and, if circumstances require, until the completion of the
penalty. The same shall apply to internees who have been previously
sentenced to a punishment depriving them of liberty.

By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers concerned,
committees may be set up after the close of hostilities, or of the
occupation of territories, to search for dispersed internees.

Art. 134. The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close
of hostilities or occupation, to ensure the return of all internees to
their last place of residence, or to facilitate their repatriation.

Art. 135. The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning
released internees to the places where they were residing when
interned, or, if it took them into custody while they were in transit
or on the high seas, the cost of completing their journey or of their
return to their point of departure.

Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its territory
to a released internee who previously had his permanent domicile
therein, such Detaining Power shall pay the cost of the said
internee's repatriation. If, however, the internee elects to return to
his country on his own responsibility or in obedience to the
Government of the Power to which he owes allegiance, the Detaining
Power need not pay the expenses of his journey beyond the point of his
departure from its territory. The Detaining Power need not pay the
cost of repatriation of an internee who was interned at his own

If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the
transferring and receiving Powers shall agree on the portion of the
above costs to be borne by each.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be
concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and
repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.

Section V. Information Bureaux and Central Agency

Art. 136. Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of
occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall establish an
official Information Bureau responsible for receiving and transmitting
information in respect of the protected persons who are in its power.

Each of the Parties to the conflict shall, within the shortest
possible period, give its Bureau information of any measure taken by
it concerning any protected persons who are kept in custody for more
than two weeks, who are subjected to assigned residence or who are
interned. It shall, furthermore, require its various departments
concerned with such matters to provide the aforesaid Bureau promptly
with information concerning all changes pertaining to these protected
persons, as, for example, transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes,
admittances to hospitals, births and deaths.

Art. 137. Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information
concerning protected persons by the most rapid means to the Powers in
whose territory they resided, through the intermediary of the
Protecting Powers and likewise through the Central Agency provided for
in Article 140. The Bureaux shall also reply to all enquiries which
may be received regarding protected persons.

Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected
person unless its transmission might be detrimental to the person
concerned or to his or her relatives. Even in such a case, the
information may not be withheld from the Central Agency which, upon
being notified of the circumstances, will take the necessary
precautions indicated in Article 140.

All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be
authenticated by a signature or a seal.

Art. 138. The information received by the national Bureau and
transmitted by it shall be of such a character as to make it possible
to identify the protected person exactly and to advise his next of kin
quickly. The information in respect of each person shall include at
least his surname, first names, place and date of birth, nationality
last residence and distinguishing characteristics, the first name of
the father and the maiden name of the mother, the date, place and
nature of the action taken with regard to the individual, the address
at which correspondence may be sent to him and the name and address of
the person to be informed.

Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who
are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly and
if possible every week.

Art. 139. Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be
responsible for collecting all personal valuables left by protected
persons mentioned in Article 136, in particular those who have been
repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died; it shall forward
the said valuables to those concerned, either direct, or, if
necessary, through the Central Agency. Such articles shall be sent by
the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements
giving clear and full identity particulars of the person to whom the
articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the
parcel. Detailed records shall be maintained of the receipt and
despatch of all such valuables.

Art. 140. A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in
particular for internees, shall be created in a neutral country. The
International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary,
propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency,
which may be the same as that provided for in Article 123 of the
Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12
August 1949.

The function of the Agency shall be to collect all information of the
type set forth in Article 136 which it may obtain through official or
private channels and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the
countries of origin or of residence of the persons concerned, except
in cases where such transmissions might be detrimental to the persons
whom the said information concerns, or to their relatives. It shall
receive from the Parties to the conflict all reasonable facilities for
effecting such transmissions.

The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals
benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give
the said Agency the financial aid it may require.

The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting
the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red
Cross and of the relief Societies described in Article 142.

Art. 141. The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information
Agency shall enjoy free postage for all mail, likewise the exemptions
provided for in Article 110, and further, so far as possible,
exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced

Part IV. Execution of the Convention

Section I. General Provisions

Art. 142. Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may
consider essential to ensure their security or to meet any other
reasonable need, the representatives of religious organizations,
relief societies, or any other organizations assisting the protected
persons, shall receive from these Powers, for themselves or their duly
accredited agents, all facilities for visiting the protected persons,
for distributing relief supplies and material from any source,
intended for educational, recreational or religious purposes, or for
assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the places of
internment. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the
territory of the Detaining Power, or in any other country, or they may
have an international character.

The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and
organizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their
activities in its territory and under its supervision, on condition,
however, that such limitation shall not hinder the supply of effective
and adequate relief to all protected persons.

The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross
in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.

Art. 143. Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall
have permission to go to all places where protected persons are,
particularly to places of internment, detention and work.

They shall have access to all premises occupied by protected persons
and shall be able to interview the latter without witnesses,
personally or through an interpreter.

Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative
military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary
measure. Their duration and frequency shall not be restricted.

Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select
the places they wish to visit. The Detaining or Occupying Power, the
Protecting Power and when occasion arises the Power of origin of the
persons to be visited, may agree that compatriots of the internees
shall be permitted to participate in the visits.

The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall
also enjoy the above prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates
shall be submitted to the approval of the Power governing the
territories where they will carry out their duties.

Art. 144. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as
in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as
widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular,
to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if
possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become
known to the entire population.

Any civilian, military, police or other authorities, who in time of
war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must
possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to
its provisions.

Art. 145. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one
another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities,
through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the
present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may
adopt to ensure the application thereof.

Art. 146. The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any
legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons
committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of
the present Convention defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search
for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be
committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons,
regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also,
if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own
legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High
Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has
made out a prima facie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the
suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present
Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards
of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than
those provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva
Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August

Art. 147. Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall
be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against
persons or
property protected by the present Convention: wilful killing, torture
or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully
causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful
deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person,
compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile
Power, or wilfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair
and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of
hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not
justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and

Art. 148. No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself
or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by
itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches
referred to in the preceding Article.

Art. 149. At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall
be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested
Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the
enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will
decide upon the procedure to be followed.

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict
shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible

Section II. Final Provisions

Art. 150. The present Convention is established in English and in
French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of
the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Art. 151. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is
open to signature until 12 February 1950, in the name of the Powers
represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on 21 April 1949.

Art. 152. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible
and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of
ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted
by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the
Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Art. 153. The present Convention shall come into force six months
after not less than two instruments of ratification have been

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party
six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.

Art. 154. In the relations between the Powers who are bound by the
Hague Conventions respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land,
whether that of 29 July 1899, or that of 18 October 1907, and who are
parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be
supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the
above-mentioned Conventions of The Hague.

Art. 155. From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to
any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to
accede to this Convention.

Art. 156. Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal
Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they
are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the
Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose
accession has been notified.

Art. 157. The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall
effective immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions
notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning
of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall
communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions
received from Parties to the conflict.

Art. 158. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to
denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal
Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High
Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification
thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a
denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the
denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until
peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with
the release, repatriation and re-establishment of the persons
protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing
Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to
the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles
of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established
among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of
the public conscience.

Art. 159. The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present
Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss
Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United
Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by
it with respect to the present Convention.

In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective
full powers, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and
French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of
the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit
certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.

Annex I. Draft Agreement Relating to Hospital and Safety Zones and

Art. 1. Hospital and safety zones shall be strictly reserved for the
persons mentioned in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the
Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces
in the Field of 12 August 1949, and in Article 14 of the Geneva
Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of
War of 12 August 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the
organization and administration of these zones and localities, and
with the care of the persons therein assembled.

Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones
shall have the right to stay there.

Art. 2. No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital and
safety zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone,
directly connected with military operations or the production of war

Art. 3. The Power establishing a hospital and safety zone shall take
all necessary measures to prohibit access to all persons who have no
right of residence or entry therein.

Art. 4. Hospital and safety zones shall fulfil the following

(a) they shall comprise only a small part of the territory governed by
the Power which has established them
(b) they shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of
(c) they shall be far removed and free from all military objectives,
or large industrial or administrative establishments
(d) they shall not be situated in areas which, according to every
probability, may become important for the conduct of the war.

Art. 5. Hospital and safety zones shall be subject to the following
(a) the lines of communication and means of transport which they
possess shall not be used for the transport of military personnel or
material, even in transit
(b) they shall in no case be defended by military means.

Art. 6. Hospital and safety zones shall be marked by means of oblique
red bands on a white ground, placed on the buildings and outer

Zones reserved exclusively for the wounded and sick may be marked by
means of the Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) emblem on a
white ground.

They may be similarly marked at night by means of appropriate

Art. 7. The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting
Parties in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the
hospital and safety zones in the territories governed by them. They
shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.

As soon as the adverse party has received the above-mentioned
notification, the zone shall be regularly established.

If, however, the adverse party considers that the conditions of the
present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize
the zone by giving immediate notice thereof to the Party responsible
for the said zone, or may make its recognition of such zone dependent
upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.

Art. 8. Any Power having recognized one or several hospital and safety
zones instituted by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand
control by one or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of
ascertaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations
stipulated in the present agreement.

For this purpose, members of the Special Commissions shall at all
times have free access to the various zones and may even reside there
permanently. They shall be given all facilities for their duties of

Art. 9. Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they
consider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they
shall at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone
to these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which
the matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power which
has recognized the zone.

If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone has
not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it
is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the said

Art. 10. Any Power setting up one or more hospital and safety zones,
and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified,
shall nominate or have nominated by the Protecting Powers or by other
neutral Powers, persons eligible to be members of the Special
Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.

Art. 11. In no circumstances may hospital and safety zones be the
object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times
by the Parties to the conflict.

Art. 12. In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital and
safety zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as

Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on
condition that all measures are taken to ensure the safety of the
persons accommodated.

Art. 13. The present agreement shall also apply to localities which
the Powers may utilize for the same purposes as hospital and safety

Annex II. Draft Regulations concerning Collective Relief

Article 1. The Internee Committees shall be allowed to distribute
collective relief shipments for which they are responsible to all
internees who are dependent for administration on the said Committee's
place of internment, including those internees who are in hospitals,
or in prison or other penitentiary establishments.

Art. 2. The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be
effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a
plan drawn up by the Internee Committees. The issue of medical stores
shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior
medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries,
waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand.
Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be
carried out equitably.

Art. 3. Members of Internee Committees shall be allowed to go to the
railway stations or other points of arrival of relief supplies near
their places of internment so as to enable them to verify the quantity
as well as the quality of the goods received and to make out detailed
reports thereon for the donors.

Art. 4. Internee Committees shall be given the facilities necessary
for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all
subdivisions and annexes of their places of internment has been
carried out in accordance with their instructions.

Art. 5. Internee Committees shall be allowed to complete, and to cause
to be completed by members of the Internee Committees in labour
detachments or by the senior medical officers of infirmaries and
hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating
to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities,
etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be
forwarded to the donors without delay.

Art. 6. In order to secure the regular distribution of collective
relief supplies to the internees in their place of internment, and to
meet any needs that may arise through the arrival of fresh parties of
internees, the Internee Committees shall be allowed to create and
maintain sufficient reserve stocks of collective relief. For this
purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each
warehouse shall be provided with two locks, the Internee Committee
holding the keys of one lock, and the commandant of the place of
internment the keys of the other.

Art. 7. The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in
particular, shall, so far as is in any way possible and subject to the
regulations governing the food supply of the population, authorize
purchases of goods to be made in their territories for the
distribution of collective relief to the internees. They shall
likewise facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures
of a technical or administrative nature taken for the purpose of
making such purchases.

Art. 8. The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to
the right of internees to receive collective relief before their
arrival in a place of internment or in the course of their transfer,
nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting Power, or
of the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other
humanitarian organization giving assistance to internees and
responsible for forwarding such supplies, ensuring the distribution
thereof to the recipients by any other means they may deem suitable.

Israel accused Friday, 3 November, 2000 - Israel has always sought to escape
responsibility for what was done in Khiam

by the apparent proof of massacres was fueled by the press, which matched
wartime photos with imaginative illustrations showing Egyptian soldiers
surrendering, being ordered to dig their graves, then being executed.

"The saving of the Jews in Europe did not figure at the head of the list of
priorities of the ruling class. It was the foundation of the State which was
primordial in their eyes."

"The masses of Jews from Hungary's ghettos obediently boarded the
deportation trains without knowing their fate. They were full of
confidence in the false information that they were being transferred to

The Nazis could not have misled the masses of Jews so conclusively had
they not spread their false information through Jewish channels.

The Jews of the ghettos would not have trusted the Nazi or Hungarian
rulers. But they had trust in their Jewish leaders. Eichmann and  others
used this known fact as part of their calculated plan to mislead  the Jews.
They were able to deport the Jews to their extermination by the help  of
Jewish leaders.

The false information was spread by the Jewish leaders. The local  leaders
of the Jews of Kluj and Nodvarod knew that other leaders were  spreading
such false information and did not protest.

Those of the Jews who tried to warn their friends of the truth were
persecuted by the Jewish leaders in charge of the local 'rescue work'.

The truth is that somewhere between 700,000 and 1,500,000 people died in
German work camps in 1944 and 1945. Most of them were Jews. Many were not.
Most of them died in the last six months of the war from disease and hunger
caused by America's bombing of Germany and subsequent destruction of her
infrastructure. There were some atrocities but very few. Few people realize
the International Red Cross had a field office in Auschwiz from 1942 until
the end of the war.
That office never reported or recorded any atrocities (Several years ago
international Jewry forced the Red Cross to apologize to the Jews -
apologize for not seeing something that never happened.)

Clearly, the German authorities were at pains to relieve the dire situation
as far as they were able. The Red Cross are quite explicit in stating that
food supplies ceased at this time due to the Allied bombing of German
transportation, and in the interests of interned Jews they had protested on
March 15th, 1944 against "the barbarous aerial warfare of the Allies" (Inter
Arma Caritas, p. 78). By October 2nd, 1944, the ICRC warned the German
Foreign Office of the impending collapse of the German transportation
system, declaring that starvation conditions for people throughout Germany
were becoming inevitable.

"Dan" <Danwigin2@hotmail.com  wrote in message

January 29, 2009 at 20:44:43

An avalanche of documentation that 9/11 was an "inside job" tip of an
iceberg of monstrous, historical evil.

by W. Christopher Epler (Bill)

First, please check out the following recently submitted and excellent
piece on Op-Ed News:


Second, check out this link to a former editor of Forbes, named Benjamin
Fulford (a name we'll all undoubtedly be hearing much more from in the


If these links aren't live on your system, please copy the addresses.
If the Fulford address is significantly blocked as well, do a search on
Benjamin Fulford (pieces, streaming videos, etc.).

Obama is playing with marbles if even a tenth of the above massively
documented material is correct. Godspeed to his efforts, but if the
ruling class of our country is not just business as usual corrupt, but
pathologically and genocidally evil (as the above historical
documentation effectively proves), then it's time for the American
consciousness to snap out of our Rip van Winkle coma and quantum jump to
realistically acknowledge forces that infinitely transcend the sitcom
game of politics.

Part (and only part) of what this material is forcing us to confront is
the obvious and ominous truth that America is really a relatively small
player in the vast human community of the Earth and we are getting VERY
threatening signals from the Orient in particular that that they are
SICK TO DEATH of the war mongering United States of America.

China, for example, is getting fed up with keeping the economy afloat of
a country that, to paraphrase Keith Olbermann is now seen by humanity as
"the worst country in the world" -- and unfortunately they're talking
about us (and our equally war mongering minion dependents).

So why are we like this and why are we so hated?  Is it the American
people?  Have we suddenly mutated into illiterate barbarians?
Fortunately, from the perspective of the above avalanche of facts, this
is not how the Orient in particular sees us.  Their anger is balanced
with intelligence and they VERY CLEARLY understand that the going
ballistic Have and Have Not horror in America is not only reducing
America's working class to cattle (or corpses), but is rapidly and
devastatingly rippling out to trash the economies of ALL countries and
irreversibly destroying the life and death ecosystems of the entire
human race.

OK, now let's think about this.  The national/international elites
(sometimes called the "Illuminati" - do a search on that one as well),
are having their way with EVERYTHING (especially in America!), but this
gaggle of multi millionaires and multi billionaires are perfectly
described as metastasized cancers or vampires (take your pick) since
either image captures the sense of miniscule (remember the elites are
less than one percent of the human race) but horrifically toxic sub
systems which are VERY rapidly killing their "host" - where host means
both human civilization and the our increasingly decimated human

So, this all means what?  Apparently from the perspective of the rest of
the planet, it means the Greek God like paradise of American elites (or
Illuminati) is on the verge of being internationally "dealt with"
financially and, if necessary, violently.  Hell, the Chinese alone could
bring us to our knees in a heartbeat if they called in all their loans .
. . but calling in loans in the least of it.

The bottom line is very, very simple.  The rest of the planet is coming
to the end of their patience with war mongering countries, whether the
wars are money cow oil wars for American elites, or murder in the name
off God wars of sociopathic, religious fanatics.

Said differently, it seems most of the planet really wants peace.
Unfortunately, Europe seems to be on the fence about all this, but not
the Orient.  And speaking of Europe, the Orient is also coming to the
end of their patience about the UN.  After all, they have most of the
population AND MONEY of the planet, and yet they still are barely
represented in this pseudo international organization.

Again, this is all so simple and plausible.  How could it be otherwise?
Does it really make sense that the VAST MAJORITY of the planet is just
going to passively enable American elites to keep living like Greek
Gods?  Does it make any sense that the vast majority of the planet is
going to passively allow American elites to extend their infinite greed
into the economic destruction of basically all other countries?  And
most of all, does it really make any sense the vast majority of the
planet is going to watch TV sitcoms while American elites (think
Rockefeller, Paris Hilton, Rupert Murdoch etc.) literally DESTROY THE

Bottom line, anyone who thinks the Orient in particular is gong to
"enable" American elites to keep living like war mongering Greek Gods at
the cost their own national economies and their very lives needs to see
a psychiatrist.

In AAA, when things get bad enough, someone does an "intervention" and
if the link material is mostly true, then we are on the verge of being
"intervened on".  Appropriately, the ones who should worry the most
about this are the elites/Illuminati, since if a monster is running amok
and trashing human existence, the implied strategy is to cut off its head.

The elites may be able to "have their will" with us, but the time may be
close when they are going to discover that they are not Greek Gods after
all, but vulnerable, mortal human beings along with all the rest of
human race.

An implied hopeful postscript is that IF the elites and war mongerers of
all stripes (religious fanatics as well as greed vampires) realize how
large is the Sword of Damocles that is hanging over their heads as we
speak, they may come to their senses and realize that it is win/win for
us all when human existence has a religiously unfanatical and
financially level playing field.

The alternative may well be an enraged and imminent tsunami of
"corrective planetary feedback".

[ Auf dieses Posting antworten ]